Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : anaemia

The Clinical Profile of Anaemiaand Factors Associated with Anaemia Among Adolescent (13-19 Yrs) Girls

Guruprasad Hosamani, Rashmi M. B, Rashmi Ullagaddi, Sushrit A. Neelopant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 353-361

Background: The worldwide prevalence of anaemia among adolescents is high and even
higher in developing countries. The burden of anaemia is a major contributor for low
birth weight, lowered resistance to infection, poor cognitive and motor development,
weakness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating and lower productivity. India had
reported high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls, which is apparently higher
when compared with the other developing nations. Objectives: To study the clinical
profile of anaemia among Adolescent (13-19 years) girl students and to determine the
factors associated with anaemia in Adolescent girl students like socio – demographic
factors, prevalence of anaemia and clinical profile.
Materials and Methods: Single centre, cross sectional study, sociodemographic and
clinical details were collected and analyzed. Blood test was done to estimate anaemia
and to classify type of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was compared with
sociodemographic and other details to look for association.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the present study was 25%, 78 (39%) girls
belonged to class IV. Students not wearing footwear, not washing hand, not consuming
jaggery, history of recurrent infections, passing worms, irregular cycle were anemic.
Majority of cases had microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
Conclusion: 25% prevalence is noted in our study which is of moderate magnitude.
Most commonly microcytic hypochromic anaemia 60% was noted followed by
normocytic normochromic 30%. High risk factors were students belonging to low socio
– economic groups, with Low BMI, not using foot wear, and present of menstrual
abnormalities like polymenorrhoea.

Anaemia and Its Associated Factors Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Eastern India: A Cross Sectional Study

Shaibal Guha, Amit Kumar Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5591-5598

Background: Anaemia is a common diabetes mellitus (DM) consequence that has a
negative impact on the progression and development of other diabetes-related
problems. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and its
associated variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As a result, the
purpose of this study was to look at the prevalence of anaemia and its associated
variables in T2DM patients.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 249 T2DM patients
who were chosen by a systematic random sample procedure. Face-to-face interviews,
anthropometric measurements, and laboratory testing such as haemoglobin
measurements, red blood indices, and serum creatinine analysis were used to collect
data. The data were coded and entered into Epi-data management version before
being analysed using SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression
analysis were used to discover the determinants of anaemia. P-values less than 0.05 were
considered statistically significant.
Results: According to the findings of the study, 20.1 percent of the individuals were
anaemic. Age >60 years (AOR=3.06, 95 percent CI: 1.32–7.11), poor glycemic control
(AOR=2.95, 95 percent CI: 1.22–7.15), eGFR 60–89.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (AOR=2.91, 95
percent CI: 1.15–7.37), eGFR 10 years (AOR=2.75, 95 percent CI: 1.17–6.48), and
experiencing diabetic complications (AOR=3.81, 95% CI: 1.65–8.81) were significantly
associated with anaemia.

Use of IV iron in iron deficiency anemia in CKD with raised serum ferritin

Dr. NS Sengar, Dr. Rambabu Singh, Dr. Preeti Gupta, Dr. Patel Jivabhai Girish Kumar, Dr. Hardeep Jogi, Dr. Nitin Gupta .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1274-1279

Background: Many newer tests are now available to diagnose iron deficiency in CKD but these tests are not widely used in India as these tests are expensive and patients cannot afford these tests. Hence the traditional tests serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are needed to be studied more thoroughly to infuse IV iron to patients with iron deficiency anemia in CKD as many cannot afford ESAs and blood. Ferritin is an important indicator of iron overload as well as an acute phase reactant which increases in inflammatory conditions. Serum ferritin getting raised both in iron deficiency anemia and inflammatory states complicates our diagnosis. In this scenario TSAT plays important role in ruling out iron overload and inflammation is ruled out by inflammatory markers.
Objective: To study the effect of IV iron in patients with serum ferritin >1000ng/ml and TSAT <20%.
Methodology: This study was conducted at Department of Medicine, M.L.B. Medical College; Jhansi from March 2020 to November 2021, after seeking clearance from ethical committee and obtaining written informed consent from patient.
Result: It was seen than 18 patients showed improvement and had increase in Hb by 1g/dl. 1 patient had a reaction and transfusion was stopped immediately and 1 patient was lost to follow up.
Conclusion: Against the popular belief that infusion of iron in patients with raised serum ferritin should not be given, this study showed that after ruling out other causes of raised serum ferritin and iron overload by calculating TSAT, IV iron can be given to patients with raised serum ferritin as it shows improvement in anemia.


Dr Apurva Tiwari, Dr.Sangeeta Patre

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2367-2372

Background: There exists a high prevalence of anaemia in pregnant females owing to
multiparity, close birth spacing, lack of appropriate antenatal care, low socioeconomic status,
ignorance, and illiteracy.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the incidence of severe anaemia with
having hemoglobin of less than7gm% in pregnant females and to assess the fetal outcomes
following delivery in females having severe anaemia.
Methodology: A total of 1000 pregnant subjects were screened for anaemia. The pregnant
femaleshavingHb% of <7g% in labor were included and feto-maternal outcomes in these
females were evaluated.
Results: Puerperal complications seen were wound gaping, episiotomy, lactation failure, sub
involution, sepsis, and pyrexia in 2.46% (n=2), 2.46% (n=2), 8.64% (n=7), 7.40% (n=6),
2.46% (n=2), and 7.40% (n=6) subjects respectively in severe anaemia group, and in 12.12%
(n=4), 3.03% (n=1), 15.15% (n=5), 18.18% (n=6), 6.06% (n=2), and 9.09% (n=3) subjects
respectively with very severe anaemia. Mortality was seen in 3.03% (n=1) subject with very
severe anaemia. Morbidity was seen in 27.16% (n=22) subjects with severe anaemia and in
45.45% (n=15) subjects with very severe anaemia. The fetal outcomes were also evaluated in
the study subjects. Low birth weight was seen in 7.40% (n=6) subjects with severe anaemia
and in 6.06% (n=2) subjects with very severe anaemia. Neonatal mortality and morbidity was
seen in 1.23% (n=1) and 13.58% (n=11) subjects respectively with severe anaemia, and in
6.06% (n=2) and 24.24% (n=8) subjects respectively with very severe anaemia. Fetal
complications seen in the present study were birthaplasia in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03% (n=1)
subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, sepsis in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03%
(n=1) subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, and IUGR in 1.23% (n=1)
subject with severe anaemia.

Assessment of effect of Anaemia on recovery in surgical patients: An observational study

Dr. Tarun Kumar, Dr.Seema Solanki, Dr.Manav Vadhera, Dr. Jessica Kaushal, Dr Neeeaj Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8903-8907

Background: Anaemic patients frequently proceed to surgery without considered
assessment and management of this risk factor for adverse outcome. Hence; the present
study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effect of Anaemia on recovery in
surgical patients.
Materials & methods: 100 anaemic patients were randomly enrolled in the present study.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. Thorough
history of all the patients was recorded. The line of treatment was also recorded.
Haemoglobin estimation was done by Acid haematin method and according to
haemoglobin patients were divided in mild, moderate and severe. Recovery profile of all the
patients was assessed.
Results: Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin levels of Less the 6 gm%
was 29.4 days while among patients with haemoglobin levels between 6 to 8.99 gm%, mean
hospital stay was 21.8 days. Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin level s
between 9 to 10.99 gm% and between 11 to 12.5 gm% was 12.3 days and 8.5 days
respectively. Significantly longer hospital stay days were associated with patients with
more severe degree of anaemia.
Conclusion: Severity of Anaemia affects the recovery profile in surgical patients

Type of article- Review article Title of the article- Oral manifestation of haematological disorder- A short review

Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan. F; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1462-1465

Haematological abnormalities are variable in nature which manifests in the oral cavity. The symptoms are non specific representing the initial sign of the underlying disease. The importance of understanding the oral manifestations lies in the fact that signs and symptoms may be the first clinical presentation that alerts the dentist/hematologist to an underlying hematological disorder


Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.