Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Anaemia


Dr. Aparna Bagle, Dr.Chandrakala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2307-2313

Pre-operative anaemia has been linked to poor outcomes in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. As a result, early detection and treatment of pre-operative anaemia is advised.
Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pre-anaesthetic clinic and requirement of perioperative blood transfusion.
Material and methods: The present observational study was done in the department of anaesthesiology at tertiary Centre for the duration of 6 months. A total of 200 patients were included in the study. Patients coming for preanesthetic checkup who were posted for elective surgery and of age 18-65 years were included in the study. According to WHO definition male patients with Hb less then 13gm% and female patients with Hb less then12gm% will be considered anaemic.
Results: The prevalence of preoperative anaemia in the present study was 64.5%. Anaemia was seen most commonly in the age group 21-40 years (34.9%) and most commonly seen in males (56.6%). Anaemia was seen in 23.3% of the patients with co-morbidities. Preoperative blood transfusion was done in 20.2% of the patients with anaemia.
Conclusion: In the preoperative patient, anaemia creates a unique set of challenges. A thorough history and physical examination, as well as a methodical approach to diagnostic testing, are required for an accurate assessment of anaemia.

An Observational Study on Clinico-etiological Profile and Outcomes of Children with Status Epilepticus

Nand Kishor Singh, Shailendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Prem Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1352-1358

We conducted this research to characterise the clinical-etiological profile of children with status epilepticus (SE) who are younger than 12 years old, as well as to investigate the risk factors and underlying causes of RSE, the course of the condition at the end of the hospital stay, and indicators of a good or bad outcome in SE.
Materials and Methods: This hospital-based prospective observational study is conducted from April 2022 to January 2023 in a paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care referral hospital in Bihar, India. The study included 111 youngers than 12-year-olds who were admitted in a row with SE. The principal investigator gathered and entered the data regarding the parameters in a standardised proforma after thorough review and necessary inquiries. The final result was documented after the patient's hospital stay. The acquired data were evaluated to find important variables that might predict the result and the risk factors for RSE.
Results: After infancy, the age period of 1-6 years was reported to have the highest prevalence of SE. Boys made up 51.4% of cases while girls made up 48.6%. Meningoencephalitis and febrile status were the two most frequent causes of status. Anaemia was revealed to be a risk factor (odds ratio=8.68) and to be strongly linked with RSE (pvalue =0.001). 9 (8.1%) of the kids died. Significantly, an adverse outcome was seen more frequently in children who remained pain responsive or unresponsive 6 hours following seizure control (p value 0.01). The advancement of RSE and worse result were substantially linked with delaying the administration of the first anti-epileptic drug (AED).
Conclusion: We discovered that RSE was substantially linked with anaemia and a delay in the use of the first AED. Additionally, there was a strong correlation between poor outcomes and kids who were still in pain or unresponsive 6 hours following seizure control

Evaluation of Clinical, haematological & Biochemical Profile Of Anaemia In Paediatric Age Group

Dr. Vijayta Singh, Dr. Radhey Shyam Verma, Dr. Deepshikha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1215-1220

Anaemia is defined as a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBC) or the haemoglobin (Hb) content of blood, or a decrease in Hb's ability to bind oxygen. Anaemia in children differs from that in adults in that it is more pronounced and develops more rapidly. In developing regions, up to 51% of children aged 0-4 years and 46% of children aged 5-12 years are anemic.
Aim: To evaluateanaemia in paediatric age group using different haematological and biochemical investigations.
Material and method: The present study was conducted among 250 patients with anaemia in the age group of 0 to 18 years. Various haematological (CBC, GBP, Bone marrow aspiration, HPLC) and biochemical (Serum ferritin, Serum iron, TIBC, Vit. B12 and Folic acid) investigations were done on the blood samples received. Data so collected was tabulated in an excel sheet and was analysed using SPSS software version 22.
Results: Maximum patients were diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia. 34 patients were diagnosed with vitamin deficiency anaemia (Vit. B12, Folic acid or both). Maximum (26.4%) number of Vit. B12 deficiency anaemia patients were from 13- 18 age group whereas maximum (17.6%) number of  Folic acid deficiency were found in 7-12 years.
Conclusion: Anaemia can be detected early using biochemical and haematological assays. Children's anaemia prevention programmes should be established in conjunction with initiatives to meet their dietary needs.

Clinico Morphological Spectrum of Bone Marrow in A Tertiary Care Centre

Sanjay Kumar, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Akansha Anu, Vaishali D. Kotasthane, D.S. Kotasthane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 637-645

Bone marrow examination plays an important role in diagnosis of haematological as well as non-haematological disorders.  It is one of the diagnostic investigations of cases of Pyrexia of unknown origin, cytopenia, abnormal red cell indices, malignant haematological disorder and suspected bone marrow metastasis as its leads to an etiological diagnosis in most of the cases. BMA is mainly performed for cytomorphological examination.
Aim: The aim was to study the Clinico-morphological spectrum of bone marrow aspiration and Biopsy examination and its correlation with biochemical parameters;and to assess the diagnostic value of bone-marrow examination.
Material and methods: It is an observational study with retrospective and prospective design. The study was conducted at in Department of Pathology, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi. All eligible participants age group 3 month to 85 years were included. Data collection was done from November 2018 to April 2022. Bone marrow examination was performed for all cases. The parameters assessed after bone marrow examination were cellularity, myeloid to erythroid ratio, cytomorphological details of all cell lineage.
Results: In present study, commonest indication of bone marrow examination was unexplained anaemia followed by cytopenia and malignant haematological disorder. Distribution of bone marrow cellularity was normocellular in most of the cases. Dimorphic anaemia (26.21%) was most common finding followed by Micro normoblastic picture (22.33%) & Megaloblastic changes in 18.45% cases. Other finding was Acute leukaemia in which AML was most common finding.
Conclusion: Bone marrow study reproducible procedure used for the evolution of Haematological and non-haematological condition. Various studies shows the BME is an essential investigation for the diagnosis and management of many disorders of blood and BM.

Assessment of ferritin deficiency in heart failure cases

Vijaysinh Patil, Suhas Mule, Achyut Kannawar, Ramesh Kawade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4743-4747

Background: Iron deficiency has been related toimpaired cardiac function and altered myocardial structure in animal models. The present study was conducted to assess ferritin deficiency in heart failure cases.
Materials & Methods: 58 patients of heart failure of both genders were included and parameters such as ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin and transferrin saturation(TSAT) were measured.
Results: 58 patients were taken in which males were 38 and females were 20. Iron deficiency was seen in 12 males and 18 females and no iron deficiency was observed in 15 males and 13 females. The difference was non- significant (P>0.05). The mean hemoglobin in iron deficiency patients was 11.2 g/dl and those without iron deficiency was 13.6 g/dl. Iron level was 56.8 µg/L and 92.5 µg/L, MCV was 84.2 fl and 90.6 fl, TSAT was 14.1% and 29.7% and ferritin was 78.4 µg/L and 265.2 µg/L respectively.
Conclusion: Anaemia is a very common comorbid condition in patients of heart failure. Serum ferritin was significantly reduced in iron deficiency patients.


Dr Arpita Krishna ,Dr Gopika Balachandran, Dr Manu S Babu, Dr Mayur Ingale, Dr Yash Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7333-7337

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or Osler Weber Rendu syndrome is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder that affects multiple systems. It is characterised by skin and mucosal telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations.
Hereditary  hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a disease more commonly associated with significant morbidity than mortality.It is a rare genetic disorder known for its debilitating symptoms.More than 90% of patients with HHT experience epistaxis,which may cause anaemia if uncontrolled(1,2) and they average upto 18 bleeds per month. Patients also present with arteriovenous malformations in various organs and suffer from many complications including bleeding ,anemia,iron-deficiency, and high output high failure. Families with the same mutation exhibit considerable phenotypic variation
In this case report we present  a 67 year old male with epistaxis on and off since 20 years ,aggravated since last few days around 300-400 ml  along with generalised weakness who came with family  history of similar complaints in 13 members of the family managed with bilateral electrocauterisation of nasal cavities with post op sesame oil application and tab tranexemic acid 250mg OD.Patient is on regular follow up.
Optimal treatment is best delivered a multidisciplinary approach with appropriate diagnosis , screening and local and/or systemic management of lesions.Anti-angiogenic agents such as bevacizumab have emerged as a promising systemic therapy in reducing bleeding complications but are not curative. Other pharmacological agents include iron supplementation, antifibrinolytics and hormone treatment


Dr.MerajSultana, Dr. Md. Althaf, Dr.Zeenath Begum

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7146-7158

Backgroundandobjectives: Colostrum, the first fluid generated by mothers, is distinct in its nutrient quality and non-nutritive bioactive substances that promote survival and good growth. The research analyzes total proteins, triglycerides, immunoglobulin A, lactose, and calcium in normal colostrum with PIH, GDM, and Anaemia individuals in primigravida to see if there are significant alterations. 
Methods:The research was done on lactating mothers from the Deccan College of Medical Science, Hyderabad, India, with their approval. 80 postpartum women involved in the study, 20 as controls and 60 as instances of PIH, anaemia, and GDM. All cases were examined for protein, triglycerides, IgA, lactose, and calcium. SPSS 17.0 was used to analyse the data. Descriptive results are presented as mean and SD of several groups.
Result:Normal blood pressure (controls) was 120+6.5 mm Hg systolic and 79+3.1 mm Hg diastolic without oedema or proteinuria. Haemoglobin is 10.8+0.7g/dl. PLBS=130.7+7.6 and FBS=949.5. (92+14.6 mg/dl) Normal FBS and PLBS OGTT results. 122.5+7.8 mm Hg systolic, 74+6.8 mm Hg diastolic, 40% (8/20) oedema, 70% proteinuria. PIH, anaemia, and GDM diminish protein (p<0.005). PIH and anaemia had higher triglycerides than GDM (p<0.005). GDM exhibited more IgA than anaemia and PIH. GDM has greater mean lactose levels than anaemia, PIH, and the control group. Lactose levels are similar in anaemia and controls. (p<0.005) Anaemia, PIH, and GDM lower calcium.
Conclusion:Human milk contains number of of bioactive substances that fight infection, inflammation, immunological maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonisation. Pregnancy hypertension impacts lactogenesis and colostrum content.  Nutrition impacts milk composition. GDM affects pregnant women, mother and infant. Screening, diagnosing, and treating hyperglycemia are critical for mother and child. Regardless of diet, multivitamins are required throughout lactation. The study can't characterise all bioactive human milk components.

A study of anemia in hospitalized patients of heart failure with reduced ejection

Achyut Kannawar, Dany John, Abhijeet Shelke

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4702-4706

Background: The present study was conducted for evaluation of anemia in hospitalized patients of hospitalized patients of heart failure with reduced ejection.
Materials & methods: A total of 50 patients with presence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were enrolled. Complete demographic details of all the patients were recorded. Heart failure was diagnosed based on history, signs and symptoms, clinical parameters, laboratory parameters and 2D ECHO used to measure ejection fraction. Complete blood count, serum iron, serum ferritin, TSAT, vitamin B12 were done along with other laboratory parameters. Anemic patients were evaluated separately for different demographic details.
Results: Overall relance of anaemia among heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction was 58 percent. 65.52 percent of the patients with anaemia and 57.14 percent of the patients without anaemia were males while the remaining were females. Mean age of the patients with and without anaemia was 58.3 years and 59.4 years respectively. Cough, palpitation, exertional dyspnea, chest pain and fatigue were seen in 51.72 percent, 48.28 percent, 100 percent, 62.06 percent and 82.76 percent of the patients respectively.
Conclusion: From the above results, the authors concluded that significant proportion of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction are affected with anaemia with non-specific clinical profile


Dr. Manish Jakhar, Dr. Manoj Mali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1049-1052

The present study was conducted to assess risk factors for enteric perforation in cases of typhoid fever.
Materials & Methods: 58 cases of typhoid fever of both genders were included. Group I had typhoid fever patients having enteric perforation and group II had typhoid fever patients with no enteric perforation. Symptoms, signs and laboratory findings were recorded.
Results: Out of 58 patients, males were 32 and females were 26. Symptoms were diarrhea seen in 65% and 34%, vomiting in 70% and 52%, abdominal pain in 86% and 47%, constipation in 38% and 13% in group I and group II respectively. Signs were high fever (>38.3°C) in 94% and 90%, abdominal distention in 45% and 32%, hepatosplenomegaly in 86% and 36%, abdominal rigidity in 50%, confusion in 52% and rebound tenderness in 100%. Laboratory findings were anemia        in 15% and 12%, leukopenia in 54% and 22%, gas under diaphragm was 75%, thrombocytopenia in 65% and 22% and elevated transaminase in 58% and 43% respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Risk factors for enteric perforation was male gender, age >40 years and leukopenia (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Authors found that risk factors for enteric perforation were male gender, age >40 years and leukopenia. Typhoid fever and its complications remain an important cause of morbidity in resource-poor countries.

Analysis of Hematological Abnormalities associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Manish Mittal; Deepak Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 489-493

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder associated with significant proportion of haematological abnormalities. The present study was undertaken for assessing the haematological abnormalities among rheumatoid arthritis patients. The main aim of the study is to study the prevalence of haematological manifestations in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.


Ankush Kimmatkar, Olanrewaju Adeniran, Aishwarya Ashok Kimmatkar, Rasha Al-Hashimi, Ngumimi Peace Kpughur-tule, Sagimaie Somasundaram, Vivian Samuel Hana, Taha Sajjad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3023-3028

Background: The present study was undertaken for assessing the haematological disorders among patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.
Materials & methods: 100 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients were enrolled. Only patients aged 18 years or more willing to participate in the study were included. Also; inclusion criteria included patients having joint pains, signs of inflammation, involving mono or polyarticular joints. A detailed history of the patient was taken and through clinical examination was done according to predesigned and pretested proforma. All patients were subjected to investigations like: Complete Haemogram, ESR, RBS, Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine, Electrocardiogram, Echocardiography and Radiography of Affected Joints. The descriptive and analytical statistics was done
Results: Anaemia was found to be present in 67 percent of the patients. Leucocytosis and thrombocytosis were found to be present in 21 percent and 33 percent of the patients respectively. Raised ESR and raised CRP were found to be present in 94 and 95 percent of the patients.  Anti-CPP was found to be present in 100 percent of the patients.
Conclusion: Specific results may help to target patient education, increase physician awareness of the profile of the disease and suggest the need for social and rehabilitative services, and help monitor responses to therapy.

Use of IV iron in iron deficiency anemia in CKD with raised serum ferritin

Dr. NS Sengar, Dr. Rambabu Singh, Dr. Preeti Gupta, Dr. Patel Jivabhai Girish Kumar, Dr. Hardeep Jogi, Dr. Nitin Gupta .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1274-1279

Background: Many newer tests are now available to diagnose iron deficiency in CKD but these tests are not widely used in India as these tests are expensive and patients cannot afford these tests. Hence the traditional tests serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are needed to be studied more thoroughly to infuse IV iron to patients with iron deficiency anemia in CKD as many cannot afford ESAs and blood. Ferritin is an important indicator of iron overload as well as an acute phase reactant which increases in inflammatory conditions. Serum ferritin getting raised both in iron deficiency anemia and inflammatory states complicates our diagnosis. In this scenario TSAT plays important role in ruling out iron overload and inflammation is ruled out by inflammatory markers.
Objective: To study the effect of IV iron in patients with serum ferritin >1000ng/ml and TSAT <20%.
Methodology: This study was conducted at Department of Medicine, M.L.B. Medical College; Jhansi from March 2020 to November 2021, after seeking clearance from ethical committee and obtaining written informed consent from patient.
Result: It was seen than 18 patients showed improvement and had increase in Hb by 1g/dl. 1 patient had a reaction and transfusion was stopped immediately and 1 patient was lost to follow up.
Conclusion: Against the popular belief that infusion of iron in patients with raised serum ferritin should not be given, this study showed that after ruling out other causes of raised serum ferritin and iron overload by calculating TSAT, IV iron can be given to patients with raised serum ferritin as it shows improvement in anemia.

The Clinical Profile of Anaemiaand Factors Associated with Anaemia Among Adolescent (13-19 Yrs) Girls

Guruprasad Hosamani, Rashmi M. B, Rashmi Ullagaddi, Sushrit A. Neelopant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 353-361

Background: The worldwide prevalence of anaemia among adolescents is high and even
higher in developing countries. The burden of anaemia is a major contributor for low
birth weight, lowered resistance to infection, poor cognitive and motor development,
weakness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating and lower productivity. India had
reported high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls, which is apparently higher
when compared with the other developing nations. Objectives: To study the clinical
profile of anaemia among Adolescent (13-19 years) girl students and to determine the
factors associated with anaemia in Adolescent girl students like socio – demographic
factors, prevalence of anaemia and clinical profile.
Materials and Methods: Single centre, cross sectional study, sociodemographic and
clinical details were collected and analyzed. Blood test was done to estimate anaemia
and to classify type of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was compared with
sociodemographic and other details to look for association.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the present study was 25%, 78 (39%) girls
belonged to class IV. Students not wearing footwear, not washing hand, not consuming
jaggery, history of recurrent infections, passing worms, irregular cycle were anemic.
Majority of cases had microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
Conclusion: 25% prevalence is noted in our study which is of moderate magnitude.
Most commonly microcytic hypochromic anaemia 60% was noted followed by
normocytic normochromic 30%. High risk factors were students belonging to low socio
– economic groups, with Low BMI, not using foot wear, and present of menstrual
abnormalities like polymenorrhoea.

Study of prevalence of specific medical conditions revealed on routine preoperative evaluation in scheduled surgical procedure

Bibhudatta Dash, Ramdas Dahiphale, Parag Mahankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1235-1243

Background: Preoperative evaluation allows for comprehensive assessment, additional evaluation and optimization of the patient’s condition without delaying surgery and has the potential to reduce the number of late operating room cancellations due to newly discovered co-morbidity. Present study was aimed to study the prevalence of specific medical conditions which were revealed on the preoperative evaluation, assess their risk for surgery and provide medical recommendations for the same.
Material and Methods: Present study was hospital based, observational study, conducted in children up to 18 years of age referred for medical evaluation prior to elective surgery.
Results: Out of 300 patients, maximum number of patients were between 2 and 5 years of age (34%) and110 patients (36.7 %) had one or more previously undiagnosed medical condition. Previously undiagnosed medical conditions were seen to be more prevalent in the female patients (46.3%) than in male patients (33%). 72 patients (24%) had a past history of surgery, 10 patients (3.3%) had history of worms, 2 patients (0.6%) had history of pica, 1 patient (0.3%) had history of haematemesis and 1 patient (0.3%) had history of factor VIII deficiency. Out of 300 patients studied, 82 patients (27.3%) were anaemic, 18 patients (6%) had eosinophilia on differential leucocyte count, 10 patients (3.3%) had worms in stool, 8 patients (2.6%) were suspected to have thalassemia trait/ minor. Majority of patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and investigation (76.3%), by routine investigations (25.4%)and on clinical examination only (20.9%).Common interventions in present study were iron and folic acid supplements (25.6%), antihelminthic medication (7.6%), steroids in the perioperative period (2.6%), advised thalassemia screening (2.6%), suggested tooth extraction (2.6%).
Conclusion: Anaemia was seen to be the most common previously undiagnosed medical condition followed by eosinophilia and the third being worms in stool.

Anaemia and Its Associated Factors Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Eastern India: A Cross Sectional Study

Shaibal Guha, Amit Kumar Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5591-5598

Background: Anaemia is a common diabetes mellitus (DM) consequence that has a
negative impact on the progression and development of other diabetes-related
problems. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and its
associated variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As a result, the
purpose of this study was to look at the prevalence of anaemia and its associated
variables in T2DM patients.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 249 T2DM patients
who were chosen by a systematic random sample procedure. Face-to-face interviews,
anthropometric measurements, and laboratory testing such as haemoglobin
measurements, red blood indices, and serum creatinine analysis were used to collect
data. The data were coded and entered into Epi-data management version before
being analysed using SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression
analysis were used to discover the determinants of anaemia. P-values less than 0.05 were
considered statistically significant.
Results: According to the findings of the study, 20.1 percent of the individuals were
anaemic. Age >60 years (AOR=3.06, 95 percent CI: 1.32–7.11), poor glycemic control
(AOR=2.95, 95 percent CI: 1.22–7.15), eGFR 60–89.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (AOR=2.91, 95
percent CI: 1.15–7.37), eGFR 10 years (AOR=2.75, 95 percent CI: 1.17–6.48), and
experiencing diabetic complications (AOR=3.81, 95% CI: 1.65–8.81) were significantly
associated with anaemia.

Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021

Mohammed mansour alqurashi, Aliaa Lutfe Hennawe, Mohammad Ali Siddiq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3325-3344

Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin concentration of less than 11 g/dL in children. Anemia was found to be prevalent in 56.6 percent of the population. The significant prevalence of anemia shows that it might be a contributing factor in hospitalization, especially given the short length of stay and the likelihood that the patient was anemic at the time of enrollment. According to the World Health Organization, Iron Deficiency Anemia is a global dietary problem. At least one third of the population has been anemic at some point in their lives. Since children are more susceptible to anemia, this is particularly crucial. It could be attributed to the patients' poor overall dietary condition, including their microelement intake. Increased penetration of supplements and fortifying programs, as well as other measures aimed at preventing and controlling anemia, are strongly advised.  Anemia is a global problem that can affect the neurodevelopment and behaviour of infants. A study shows that 52% of infants attending well-baby clinics in Saudi Arabia had iron deficiency anaemia. Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centres, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Makkah Al-Mokarramah primary healthcare centers (Al-Ka’akyah) in January, 2021. Infants who visited the well-baby clinic for vaccination/routine follow-up were selected through convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire filled out by the researcher through an interview with the mother of infants was utilized for data collection. Results. Ninety-nine ( 1 year old) infants have included in the study wherein males represent 54.5% of them . All were of Saudi- nationality and majority of them (94.9%) live with both parents. Slightly more than one-quarter of them (27.3%) were first birth order. More than three-fourth (83.8%) had weight of >3 kg. For their respective mothers, all (99%) except one were Saudis, having the age to range between 23 and 45 years with a mean of 28.8 years (SD=3.7). Conclusion. This study provides evidence of a gap in assessment to anaemia is a common problem among infants aged one year in Makkah Al-Mokarramah as it affects almost one-quarter of them also iron deficiency anemia(IDA) is still the most prevalent type of anemia; however, it was found in only 6.3% participants


Dr Apurva Tiwari, Dr.Sangeeta Patre

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2367-2372

Background: There exists a high prevalence of anaemia in pregnant females owing to
multiparity, close birth spacing, lack of appropriate antenatal care, low socioeconomic status,
ignorance, and illiteracy.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the incidence of severe anaemia with
having hemoglobin of less than7gm% in pregnant females and to assess the fetal outcomes
following delivery in females having severe anaemia.
Methodology: A total of 1000 pregnant subjects were screened for anaemia. The pregnant
femaleshavingHb% of <7g% in labor were included and feto-maternal outcomes in these
females were evaluated.
Results: Puerperal complications seen were wound gaping, episiotomy, lactation failure, sub
involution, sepsis, and pyrexia in 2.46% (n=2), 2.46% (n=2), 8.64% (n=7), 7.40% (n=6),
2.46% (n=2), and 7.40% (n=6) subjects respectively in severe anaemia group, and in 12.12%
(n=4), 3.03% (n=1), 15.15% (n=5), 18.18% (n=6), 6.06% (n=2), and 9.09% (n=3) subjects
respectively with very severe anaemia. Mortality was seen in 3.03% (n=1) subject with very
severe anaemia. Morbidity was seen in 27.16% (n=22) subjects with severe anaemia and in
45.45% (n=15) subjects with very severe anaemia. The fetal outcomes were also evaluated in
the study subjects. Low birth weight was seen in 7.40% (n=6) subjects with severe anaemia
and in 6.06% (n=2) subjects with very severe anaemia. Neonatal mortality and morbidity was
seen in 1.23% (n=1) and 13.58% (n=11) subjects respectively with severe anaemia, and in
6.06% (n=2) and 24.24% (n=8) subjects respectively with very severe anaemia. Fetal
complications seen in the present study were birthaplasia in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03% (n=1)
subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, sepsis in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03%
(n=1) subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, and IUGR in 1.23% (n=1)
subject with severe anaemia.

Assessment of effect of Anaemia on recovery in surgical patients: An observational study

Dr. Tarun Kumar, Dr.Seema Solanki, Dr.Manav Vadhera, Dr. Jessica Kaushal, Dr Neeeaj Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8903-8907

Background: Anaemic patients frequently proceed to surgery without considered
assessment and management of this risk factor for adverse outcome. Hence; the present
study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effect of Anaemia on recovery in
surgical patients.
Materials & methods: 100 anaemic patients were randomly enrolled in the present study.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. Thorough
history of all the patients was recorded. The line of treatment was also recorded.
Haemoglobin estimation was done by Acid haematin method and according to
haemoglobin patients were divided in mild, moderate and severe. Recovery profile of all the
patients was assessed.
Results: Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin levels of Less the 6 gm%
was 29.4 days while among patients with haemoglobin levels between 6 to 8.99 gm%, mean
hospital stay was 21.8 days. Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin level s
between 9 to 10.99 gm% and between 11 to 12.5 gm% was 12.3 days and 8.5 days
respectively. Significantly longer hospital stay days were associated with patients with
more severe degree of anaemia.
Conclusion: Severity of Anaemia affects the recovery profile in surgical patients

Type of article- Review article Title of the article- Oral manifestation of haematological disorder- A short review

Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan. F; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1462-1465

Haematological abnormalities are variable in nature which manifests in the oral cavity. The symptoms are non specific representing the initial sign of the underlying disease. The importance of understanding the oral manifestations lies in the fact that signs and symptoms may be the first clinical presentation that alerts the dentist/hematologist to an underlying hematological disorder


Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.