Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : PAP Smear


Outcome of cervical cancer screening using Pap smear test on a target population

Dr. Shruti Bhavi Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 122-126

Objective: To evaluate the use of Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous
lesions.
Methods: Women working in police department and female family members of men working
in police department were screened for Ca cervix. A total of 67 women were recruited for the
study. A clinical examination per speculum and per vaginal examination were performed and
a history taken for all women. A pap smear was used for all women to see for cervical cancer.
The smear was obtained using Ayer’s spatula and spread over a marked glass slide which was
placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and sent to department of Pathology for cytopathological
examination. All data were recorded using a predesigned proforma.
Results: Most women were in age range of 30-50 years. The common complaint was white
discharge per vagina occurring in about 30% of individuals, abdominal pain was in 8.95% of
them, irregular menstrual cycle in 12.78% and 40.29% of them did not have any complaints.
Out of 67 ladies 61 (92.1%) pap smears were taken and 6 were not taken due to post
hysterectomy status or because they were menstruating. The test was negative for malignancy
in 68.6% of individuals and 11% of individuals had inflammatory smear due to infections
with trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis or candidiasis. Atypical cells were detected in 2.98%
women and they were advised colposcopy and guided biopsy. 5% of individuals had
unsatisfactory smear due to inadequate sample.
Conclusion: A Pap smear is simple, noninvasive, cost-effective, and easy to perform for
detection of precancerous lesions in a gynecological patient. Awareness about screening in
general population is needed. Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a
colposcopy and guided biopsy.

A Prospective Study to Evaluate the PAPSmear and Acetic Acid Test (VIA) as Cervical Cancer Screening Tools with Histopathological Correlation at Tertiary Care Center

Neha Gupta, Ruchi Agrawal, Shweta Agarwal, Suneeta Meena

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1383-1387

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women
globally. There are different methods for control and prevention of cervical cancer
which include conventional cytology (Pap smear), liquid-based cytology, human
papillomavirus (HPV) screening, and vaccination against HPV. The aim of this study to
evaluate the pap smear and acetic acid test as cervical cancer screening tools with
histopathological correlation.
Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in department of pathology at
SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India for one year period. A total of 150
patients attending the gynecology OPD were enrolled in the study. All the patients in the
study were subjected to colposcopy. The cervix was inspected with the naked eye than
with a colposcope. After taking the Pap smear with Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush and
was evaluated by the Bethesda system and then cervix was washed with normal saline
and visualized, followed by application of 3% acetic acid and visualization by
colposcope. Collected data was statistically analyzed to determine specificity and
sensitivity, PPV, NPV of Pap smear, VIA.
Results: Our study shows that majority of cases were seen in 40-50 years of age
group.Sensitivity of VIA was found to be 90% (versus Pap smear, which had 40%) and
specificity of VIA was 87.85% (versus Pap smear, which had specificity of 96.42%).
Conclusion: PAP smear screening needs good infrastructure, trained manpower to
make & interpret the slides which is not feasible considering the facilities available in
the periphery. However, VIA can be done even by sisters in the remotest place with
minimum facilities & patient is diagnosed.

Pap screening for cervical carcinoma – evolving trends

R.Thiripurasundari, L.Jacqueline, S. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1320-1330

Cancer has manifested itself as one of the most serious health problems facing humanity today. Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, often known as a Pap smear, is the most basic test for cervical screening. It involves the microscopic inspection of cervical cells obtained from the cervix, and it is performed by a physician. In order to achieve this, automated detection and classification of cervical cancer from pap-smear images has become a must just because it allows for accurate, reliable, and rapid investigation of the condition's progression. With an emphasis on the history of pap screening, liquid based cytology, and machine learning for cervical cancer detection in recent research publications, this paper provides a summary of the state of the art as stated in several significant recent information sources. For the first time, an evaluation of image analysis and machine learning applications in the growing trends of cervical cancer diagnosis from pap-smear images over the course of a decade has been published. The survey examines 26 journal papers that were obtained electronically through major scientific databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, IEEE, and Science Direct, which were searched using sets of keywords. The papers were obtained from major scientific databases such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scopus, IEEE, and Science Direct. Whenever the Pap test is improved through the use of artificial intelligence, the sensitivity for the detection of cervical pathology is improved as well. The general public should be taught about the Pap smear test with AI, including its purpose and the frequency with which it must be performed, through comprehensive programmes aimed at improving disease management in general.