Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Hypothyroid


Prof. (Dr.) Seeba Hussain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2964-2971

Introduction: A prevalent diagnosis with significant social and economic consequences, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) accounts for 20–30% of patients in the outpatient clinic. Heavy menstrual bleeding complaints have a large negative impact on quality of life, necessitate time away from work, necessitate surgical intervention, including hysterectomy, and eventually have a significant negative impact on the health care system. The majority of these issues can be avoided with prompt and effective management.
Methods: A ten month cross-sectional prospective study on 100 women (50 with abnormal uterine bleeding and 50 with a regular cycle were chosen as control cases) was carried out in the outpatient department at Katihar Medical College and Hospital. Both study groups had their general and menstrual histories, examinations, and thyroid function tests evaluated.
Results: Women who experienced abnormal uterine bleeding were significantly more likely to have high thyroid stimulating hormone levels (p=0.002). Low T4 levels were strongly related with women who experienced abnormal uterine bleeding (p=0.04). Women with abnormal uterine haemorrhage and hypothyroidism were shown to be significantly associated (p=0.003).
Conclusion: Maintaining a high index of suspicion and quickly screening for the existence of abnormal thyroid function are crucial for making an early diagnosis.

Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Study

Bhausaheb Vasantrao Jagdale, Gouse Bin Mohammad Shaik, Vinay Kshirsagar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2413-2418

Background:Body  adiposity,  especially  ectopic  fat  accumulation,  has  a  range  of  metabolic  and cardiovascular effects. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function is associated with various regional fat quantities in euthyroid subjects.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted on 90 patients divided into 2 groups (a) newly detected hypothyroids (b) normal control group. Cases were matched with controls in having similar environment exposure and age group. All patients had routine symptom and clinical assessment. Laboratory investigations such as complete blood picture, pulmonary function test, chest x ray and thyroid function test were done. Data was entered and analyzed.
Results: In this study author observed a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio in hypothyroids. FVC between cases and controls did not show statistical significance, although the mean FVC was found to be lower in cases (1.44) as compared to controls (1.79). The various respiratory patterns seen in cases were as follows: obstructive pattern (32%), followed by mixed pattern and restrictive pattern (28%, 22% respectively). Furthermore, we observed that there was no significant correlation between TSH or fT4 with FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC.
Conclusion: This study shows that hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, thereby suggesting obstructive patterns of lung involvement. Therefore, PFT can be used routinely as a screening test for all hypothyroid patients to detect early respiratory dysfunction and thereby optimize treatment especially in obese patients and patients with pre-existing lung disease as hypothyroidism adds to their respiratory dysfunction.


Dr Md Rashid AhsanLodhi, Dr AsifAyaz, Dr SayantaannSaha, Dr. C. R. Mallikarjuna .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3105-3108

Background: In endocrinology, the most commonly prevalent and undiagnosed condition encountered is thyroid dysfunction having a high burden on the healthcare sector in India. In addition, Iodine is an essential micronutrient for mental and physical growth in humans, its deficiency remains highly prevalent globally. Thyroid enlargement is commonly associated with thyroid deficiency clinically with decreased iron and selenium levels, and an increase in smoking, natural goitrogen, and TSH levels. Goiter representing enlargement of the entire thyroid gland is seen associated with raised levels of TSH, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism.
Aim: The present clinical study was conducted to assess the association of thyroid hormone levels and goiter by assessing the thyroid profile in subjects with goiter.
Methods:The present cross-sectional study included 200 subjects comprising of 100 subjects with goiter and 100 normal healthy subjects in the age range of 18-35 years. For all the included subjects, thyroid hormone profile and thyroid function tests were assessed.
Results:The study results showed a significant difference between healthy subjects and subjects with goiter in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects. The prevalence of goiter was largely influenced by lower and higher concentrations of TSH.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that the prevalence of goiter largely depends on abnormal and normal levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) depicting hormonal dysfunction. TSH levels, thyroid nodules, and female gender were found to be the possible predictor for goiter, whereas, thyroid volume, TSH levels, and female gender were found to be predictors for thyroid nodules. Assessment of epidemiological profile is needed to obtain the definitive conclusion.

Assessment The Levels Of 25(OH) Vitamin D And Ferritin In Patients With Hypothyroid

Amera Kamal Mohammed; Thanaa Abdulmahdi; Zainab Nasser Nabat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 23-28

Background: Thyroid hormones are essential and have various effects. For instance, they maintain normal growth and regulate metabolism. Hypothyroidism is a condition where the body doesn’t make enough thyroid hormones and people with hypothyroidism usually have a slower metabolism. The serum ferritin levels and vitamin D levels have been changed in patients with Hypothyroidism.
Objective: a study has been carried out to investigate the association among thyroid disorder and the levels of both vitamin D and ferritin.
Materials and Method: The BMI was calculated using the formula BMI= weight (kg)/ height2 (m)2. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), ferritin, T3, T4 and TSH levels were measured using the ELFA (Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay, Model: bioMérieux). the results were analysed using SPSS package (version 18).
Results: The results indicated that the age of participants played an ignorable role in this investigation, while significant increases (P<0.05) differences were noticed between the patients and controls in terms of BMI, 25(OH) vit D, ferritin, TSH, T3 and T4. There was also a significant difference(P<0.05) between male and female patients in terms of ferritin, TSH, T3 and T4 in comparison with the controls.
Conclusion: The low levels of Vitamin D and Ferritin concentration were associated with the Patients of hypothyroidism