Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : hypertension


Assessment of awareness towards hypertension management in general practitioners

Dr. Ratandeep Lamba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2121-2125

Background: Hypertension is a common chronic disease worldwide and a major risk
factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study was conducted to assess awareness
towards hypertension management in general practitioners.
Materials & Methods: 125 general practitioners of both genders were enrolled. A
questionnaire was prepared and was distributed among all participants and response
was recorded.
Results: Out of 125 subjects, males were 65 and females were 60. The number of
readings of blood pressure was 1 by 15%, 2 by 40% and 3 by 35%. Cuff placement
covering 2/3 of arm at heart level was recommended by 78%. Preferred position of
patient was sitting by 48%, supine by 32% and standing and supine by 20%. The
difference was significant (P< 0.05). Investigation preferred by GP were RBS by 85%,
ECG by 96%, ultrasound of abdomen by 42%, serum creatinine by 85%, lipid profile
by 87%, serum potassium level by 70% and urine examination by 67%. The difference
was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Most of the general practitionershad sufficient awareness regarding
techniques and symptoms of hypertension.

Etilogical and Recovery Factors Among Patients with Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis Attending a Tertiary Care Setting-A Prospective Observational Study

Dampuru Chandana, Tirumuru Divya, Gantela Sirisha, Nallabantu Lakshmi Chowdary, Triveni Chimata .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3122-3130

Background: To analyze the etiology, clinical presentation and outcome of oculomotor nerve paralysis.
Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study. All cases for the study is collected from the patients presenting themselves directly to Department of Ophthalmology, some cases are referred from Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, NRI Medical College and General Hospital, Chinakakani from 2017 to 2019.
Results: Most of the patients belong to 51- 60 yrs age group (9) followed by age group 41-50 yrs (7). Among 30 patients right eye was involved in 13 patients, and the left eye was involved in 17 patients. No patients had bilateral palsy. The most common cause of isolated oculomotor cranial nerve paralysis is DM and HTN (microvascular ischemia) in 19 patients. In the present study, out of 9 hypertensives patients with third cranial nerve paralysis eight not recovered and one recovered, out of 21 patients, ten recovered and 11 not recovered. 18 had pupil sparing oculomotor nerve paralysis and 12 had pupil involving paralysis among 30 patients .Patients with pupil sparing oculomotor cranial nerve paralysis recovered completely within six months.
Conclusion: Finally we concluded that microvascular ischemia i.e. diabetes and hypertension, incomplete paresis and pupil sparing paralysis has high chances of complete recovery.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Pterygium in a Semi Urban Area

Dr. Rasna Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1031-1037

Introduction: Pterygium is one of the very common ophthalmic disorders with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Growth of pterygium into the cornea can result in visual impairment, astigmatism, loss of corneal transparency, visual axis obstruction.
Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was done on 500 patients, where demographic details was taken from all the patients including living environment, status, time outdoors, familial history, drug abuse, history of smoking, type of work and education, use of glasses. All of them underwent regular ophthalmic examinations including systemic and comprehensive examination as well as refraction.
Results: The prevalence of Pterygium was 12.6%. 35.6% of the patients were females and 64.4% were males. 51.2% belonged to the 30-39 year age group. 33.3% were farmers and 54% were manual labourers, 61.9%) of the patients had passed their high school while 28.6% were illiterate, 73% had no familial history of pterygium, 61.9% were regular smokers and 25.4% were occasional smokers. 36.5% of the patients had hypertension and 25.4% were obese.
Conclusion: Pterygium formation in our geographical area is quite high and the most common risk factor is exposure to sunlight. Male gender, hypertension and smoking also appear to be associated risk factors. Use of sunglasses may help in reduction of the prevalence of Pterygium.

A Cross-sectional study on Coronary risk factors among students of a medical college in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India

Dr.Nanjesh Kumar S,Diwakar Kumar Singh, Animesh Gupta, Shahul Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 707-714

Background:Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) like ischaemic heart disease,
cerebrovascular diseases account for 17.7 million deaths and are the leading causes.
CVDs occurs in Indians a decade earlier than the western population.Lifestyle-related
behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for the increased burden of CHD, and
research related to these risk factors among medical students is essential, considering
their role as future healers and role models in public health intervention programs.
Objective: Study the prevalence of coronary risk factors among students of a Medical
college in Mangalore.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was done among M.B.B.S students of a Medical
College from November 2017 to March 2018. The study comprised of 500 students. A
pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Data was
collected by interview cum, clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.
Results: Out of 500 subjects 293 were females and 207 were males. 380 (76%) subjects
were consuming transfattyacid food items. 150 (30%) subjects had overweight and 40
(8%) subjects had Obesity. 80 (16%) subjects had Truncal obesity, 135 (27%) subjects
were consuming alcohol and smoking was seen in 58 (11.6%) subjects.107(21.4%)
subjects had high cholesterol. 90 (18%) subjects had lack of physical activity, 71
(14.2%) subjects had family history of CHD. 8 (1.6%) subjects had Hypertension and
10 (2%) subjects had impaired fasting blood sugar.

A prospective study on effect of controlled hba1c levels and normotension in the development of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetics

Dr. Chaithra CM, Dr. Kshama K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1410-1416

Aim: To determine the importance of HbA1C levels and normotension in predicting the development of diabetic retinopathy and the relationship between them.
Method: Prospective clinical study comprising of a group of 125 diabetics above 40 years visiting for routine eye checkup and clinically diagnosed diabetic retinopathy including both out-patient and in-patients at Department of Ophthalmology, KIMS, Bangalore. Men and women >40years with type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1C levels <7.5% and non-hypertensives (<140mmHg systolic and <90mmHg diastolic pressure) were included. Patient’s HbA1C levels and blood pressure were measured. The diabetic retinopathy status was classified according to the ETDRS system. Statistical analysis was done.
Results: At 3rd month follow up, the mean HbA1C levels was 7.25±0.22.At the end of 12th month, the mean HbA1C was 7.42±0.11At baseline, in group A 8.8% showed mild NPDR and 1.6% moderate NPDR. At the end of the study it was 8.8% mild NPDR, 1.6% moderate NPDR. No further progression was seen in a year span. All values showed statistical significance and absence of hypertension also goes in favour of mild diabetic retinopathy changes.
Conclusion: HbA1C levels and systemic hypertension are the two major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy

A study on prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension among healthy school children at an altitude of 4000-5000 feet

Dr. Divyabh Gehlot, Dr. Neelam Grover, Dr. Hemant Gupta, Dr. Rajeev Vinayak, Dr. Amudeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 430-437

Introduction: Early diagnosis of hypertension is an important strategy in its control which is usually
missed in OPD practice. Kumarhatti, Solan, was selected as the place of study based on the new AAP
2017 criteria to find the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension at an altitude of 4000-
5000 feet.
Objective: To measure blood pressure of school going children and to classify BP measurements into
normal BP, Elevated BP and Hypertension.
Methods: 600 children between 10 to 17 years of age were selected from urban and rural schools. The
final diagnosis of HTN was made if a child or adolescent had auscultatory confirmed BP readings
≥95thpercentile on 3 different visits. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS20.
Results: Prevalence of EBP, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension was found to be 15, 8%, 4.5% and 1%
respectively in the study. Prevalence of EBP and stage 1 hypertension was higher in urban population
(17.2% and 5.3% respectively) whereas stage 2 hypertension was almost equal in both population
(P<0.05). Prevalence of EBP, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension was maximum in obese category as
38.6%, 13.63%, 6.8% followed by overweight 24%, 11.25%, 2.5% respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence
of positive family history among study subjects was 15% (N=90) with P value<0.05.
Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was 5.5% in the study subjects. Prevalence of EBP and stage 1
hypertension was higher in urban population. Our study revealed that prevalence of elevated blood
pressure and hypertension was significantly more in overweight and obese children and with positive
family history compared to normal children proving obesity and positive family history as an important
risk factor for hypertension in children.

To evaluate the Pre-hypertension among MBBS students and its associated factors

Dr. Sameer Srivastava,Dr.AnupamTyagi, Dr.Nandini Srivastava, Dr.Shyam Sunder Keshari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1639-1647

Aim: To evaluate the Pre-hypertension among MBBS students and its associated factors.
Methods: 200 students of MBBS were included in this study. Out of these 200 participants,
60% were males and 40% were females. The mean age of the students was 22.55±7.66. As
per JNC 7 guidelines BP was measured, with a mercury sphygmomanometer.
Anthropometric measurements and basic laboratory parameters for blood glucose and lipid
profile estimation were measured in the study.

Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability in Hypertensive Subjects

Parul Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3270-3276

The autonomic nervous system, which is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, plays a vital role in cardiovascular regulation. It has been demonstrated that heart rate variability can provide an objective measure of autonomic function. The Peripheral Pulse Analyzer has been used to research heart rate variability in healthy and hypertensive people in order to better understand the effects of hypertension on autonomic activity. Subjects were separated into two age groups: 18-30 years and 31-44 years, and variability factors were compared in terms of gender, age, and disease stratification. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the coefficient of variation for the variability parameter represented as a logarithm (to the base 10) in contrast to the raw or average value of the parameter, resulting in greater discriminatory strength in various stratified groups. Excluding age and gender sensitive factors, there is a significant difference in the amplitude of the low frequency component for lower age group male/female hypertensives and the amplitude and area of the low frequency component for higher age group female hypertensives. These findings are consistent with earlier research of a comparable scope. However, higher age group male controls and hypertensives could not be distinguished by variability study, most likely because to comparable changes indicated by senility and hypertension. As a result, the amplitude and area of the low frequency component in the heart rate variability spectrum have been identified as hypertension-specific parameters

A study on association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital

Premaraja R, Bethiun S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2013-2019

Background: Hypertension is an increasing important medical and public health issue. Uric acid exerts a pro-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells which may be associated with MetS risk factors such as elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, hypertension and insulin resistance.5 Present study was aimed to study of association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was prospective, comparative, observational study, conducted among cases (Subjects of either gender, age >18 years, diagnosed as hypertensive (first time) were enrolled in this study during a regular routine health check-up at general medicine OPDs) & controls (Age & gender matched normotensives subjects at general medicine OPDs).
Results: In present study, 100 subjects each were studied in hypertensive as well as normotensive group. Mean levels of age, gender, BMI & co-morbidities among both groups were comparable & difference was not significant statistically. Mean pulse rate & respiratory rate were comparable among both groups & difference was not significant statistically. The mean levels of SBP and DBP were significantly more in the hypertensive subjects as compared to normotensive subjects (p < 0.001). In present study, prevalence of hyperuricemia was 9% (1% in normotensive and 8% in hypertensive subjects). Hypertensive subjects had increased mean levels of SUA than in the normotensive subjects (p < 0.001). In Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, SUA levels were significantly related with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). The average level of TG and HDL were also significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: A stronger co-relationship for higher levels of SUA concentration was noted with blood pressure hypertension and prehypertension in the participants.

COMPARISON OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO INDUCTION WITH THIOPENTONE AND ETOMIDATE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS SCHEDULED FOR ELECTIVE SURGERY-A CLINICAL STUDY

Dr.Ramlal Porika, Dr. Joshua Dhavanam Y ,Dr.P.AnandVijaya Bhasker, Dr.KommuriSudha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5962-5970

Aim: To compare the hemodynamic response to anaesthetic induction with thiopentone sodium or
etomidate in adult treated hypertensive patients posted for elective surgeries.
Materials and methods:A prospective randomised blind clinical study conducted in 60 adult treated
hypertensive patients(29-61 years) of ASA II posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia.
Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 each. Group T-Thiopentone sodium 5mg/kg
body weight Group E-Etomidate 0.3mg/kg body weight. Pulse,systolic blood pressure, diastolic
blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were noted down every minute for five minutes post
induction.
Results: Both groups were comparable statistically for age, gender and weight.There was no
statistically significant variation in the extent of over all change in heart rate, systolic, diastolic and
mean arterial pressures between the two group of patients (p >0.05).All the studied hemodynamic
variations with respect to HR,SBP,DBPand MAP in the two groups were self corrective and did not
require any treatment. Patients in both groups did not have any side effects perioperatively and for 24
hours post operatively except for vomiting in one patient in group E.
Conclusion: Both thiopentone (5mg/kg) and etomidate (0.3mg/kg) have similar hemodynamic effects
when used for induction of anaesthesia in adult treated hypertensive patients and can be safely used in
them. However thiopentone comparatively has better cost effectiveness and ease of availability.

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON SINGLE STEP 75 GRAMS ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST FOR SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

Dr. Mortha Sulochana, Dr. N. Swetha Goud, Dr.O.Balajojamma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 793-804

Gestational diabetes is defined as “carbohydrate intolerance of variables everity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy irrespective of the treatment with diet or insulin”. The prevalence of GDM in India varies from 3.8 to 21% in different parts of the country. Clinical recognition of GDM is important because timely intervention can reduce the well-described associated maternal and fetal complications.
The study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Ayaan Institute of Medical Sciences, Kanakamamidi, Telangana conducted with sample size of 400. All the antenatal women attending outpatient department during the study period are included as per the Inclusion & Exclusion criteria.
400 women had undergone 75grams OGTT test at 24weeks of gestational age and were followed up till 7days of postpartum for maternal and fetal outcome. In initial screening, 19 women had GDM out of 400 women accounting for 4.7%. After rescreening in 183 high risk women for GDM, 2 had GDM out of accounting for 1%. Out of 400 cases, 21 had GDM. GDM incidence was 5.2% using the DIPSI method. There was significant correlation between age>26 years and GDM. Incidence of GDM among primigravidawas5% and among multigravida was 5.4%. There was no significant correlation between gravida and incidence of GDM. Number of women who had pregnancy complications likegest. HTN, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, PPH in GDM group were 6(28.5%), 3(14.2%), 3(14.2%), 3(14.2%), Where as in the non GDM women number of women having these complications were 27(7.1%), 10(2.6%), 17(4.4%), 15(3.9%). There was a significant correlation between GDM and developing pregnancy complications.
Some of the local factors contributing to this high incidence are poverty and ignorance. Peopleare usually not aware of the nutritional and caloric values of food and its implication on body weight and health.

ASSESSING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LEVELS OF GLYCOSYLATED HB AND SERUM ALBUMIN IN SUBJECTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Dr. Bharat Kumar Parmer,Dr. Roshan Mandloi, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dubey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 401-406

Background: Diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence globally with rising incidence in the
world. Despite the identification of diabetes mellitus and associated complications for a long
time, the measures to reduce mortality and morbidity in subjects with diabetes mellitus are
focused only for a few decades.
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between levels of
glycosylated Hb and serum albumin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Method: The present institution-based observational study included subjects with a
confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 where levels of glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c) and serum albumin were assessed and correlated.
Result: It was seen that in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of <7%, mean serum
albumin level was 3.87±0.88 mg/dl, in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of 7-9%, mean
serum albumin level was 2.95±0.53 mg/dl, and in subjects with hemoglobin of >9%, it was
seen that mean serum albumin was 2.46±0.69 mg/dl. A negative correlation was noted where
lesser HbA1C% was related to higher mean values of serum albumin.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that subjects having higher values of glycosylated
hemoglobin have lower serum albumin levels compared to subjects where lower glycosylated
hemoglobin levels in subjects were associated with near-normal or normal serum albumin
levels.

Correlation analysis of serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension in rural population of Himachal Pradesh

Vijay Kumar, Jagjit Singh Bahia, Sharad Lodhi, Sameer Singh Faujdar, Harharpreet Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1475-1481

Introduction: A high blood pressure that doesn't have a known secondary cause is called as essential hypertension, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Calcium supplementation known to reduce the blood pressure in normal healthy individuals.
Objective: The present study aims towards analysing the correlation between serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension.
Methods: 30 cases of essential hypertension patients as cases and 30 suitable healthy age sex matched individuals with normal blood pressure as controls, as per JNC-8 guidelines were recruited in study. Serum calcium level and blood pressure was analysed in all patients.
Results: Systolic Blood Pressure in control group was 111.1 ± 7.570 and in cases was 158.1 ± 9.066. Diastolic Blood Pressure in control group was 72.80±6.183 and in cases was 92.33±6.456. Serum calcium in control group was 9.207 ± 0.7249 and in cases was 8.130 ± 0.4843.
Conclusion: Patients with lower calcium level tends to have raised blood pressure and vice versa. Thus, routine dietary restriction salt in hypertensive individuals can help in better management of hypertension.

The effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on the health related quality of life of the patient

Dr. Syed Sujat Pasha, Dr.Lakshmipathi BS, Dr.Sha NaseeruddinMakandar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 946-950

Hypertension is one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease. Approximately 7.6
million deaths (13-15% of the total) worldwide were attributable to high blood pressure in
200l.The 2003 global report showed that 7 million people die of hypertension each year and
approximately 4.5% of serious diseases are caused by it. Written informed consent was
obtained from every patient satisfying the inclusion criteria and they were thoroughly
explained in writing as well as orally in English/Kannada about the study, methodology and
possible risks during the study. In Amlodipine with Atenolol group 86% patients had good
quality, and 14% had average physical quality compared to Amlodipine with Enalapril group
which had 66.7% in good and 33.3% in average physical quality.In Amlodipine with Atenolol
group nearly 88% patients had good quality and 12% had average physical quality compared
to Amlodipine with Enalapril group which had 89% in good and 11% in average physical
quality.

DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLET BEARING ANTI HYPERTENSIVE DRUG

NIDHI SHARMA,PRANAV KUMAR UPADHYAY

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 623-636

Propranolol hydrochloride is used to treat high blood pressure, thyrotoxicosis, capillary
hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors and used to prevent migraine
headaches. In this investigation-controlled release tablet of Propranolol Hcl was prepared
using different polymers such as xanthan gum, tragacanth, sodium carboxy-methylcellulose,
HPMC K4M, Eudragit S100, ethyl cellulose by direct compression method. All the precompression
and post compression parameters of designed formulations of F1-F8 were
evaluated and found to be within permissible limits. The optimized formulation (F7) showed
a maximum percentage of drug release (100%) within 6hrs when compared to other
formulations. From the FT-IR study it was concluded that there were no possible drug and
polymer interactions. The short-term stability studies were carried out at 40±2°C and 75±5%
RH and confirmed no changes in the weight, hardness and friability. Based on study results
it may be concluded that tablets prepared will emerge as eminent candidates in treatment of
hypertension.

A study on pharmacoeconomics analysis of antihypertensive drugs

Dr. Syed Sujat Pasha,Dr.Sha NaseeruddinMakandar, Dr.Lakshmipathi BS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 951-957

Hypertension is one of the leading cause of global burden of diseases and as it is a chronic
condition with significant detrimental effects on the wide range of health outcomes, cost
effective management of hypertension appears to be a great challenge for both developed as
well as developing countries. Even though recently there have been lot of studies on
pharmacoeconomics and outcome research in the field of hypertension globally, but the
results cannot be exactly extrapolated to Indian scenario as the economic status and
socioeconomic factors are different in India as compared to the countries. Hence a study was
undertaken to evaluate the cost effective antihypertensive drugs in our hospital. An
observational comparative study is planned on 100 patients attending the outpatient
Department of General medicine with a follow up period of 6 months. Written informed
consent is obtained from all the patients satisfying the inclusion criteria. Multitherapy was
frequently prescribed (74%), out of that Atenolol with Amlong combination was most
common (54%). Diabetes was the most common co-morbid condition (24%). Multitherapy
was most frequently prescribed, and Amlodipine with Enalapril combination proved to be
most cost effective therapy. HRQoL was not much different in all the treatment groups.

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING DENTAL IMPLANT TREATMENT - A HOSPITAL BASED ASSESSMENT

Vaishnavi Devi. B Priya lochana Gajendran Delphine Priscilla Antony. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3308-3324

The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyse the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among patients undergoing  dental implant treatment in a dental hospital. All the patients reported in the month of June 2019 to March 2020 for implant placement was chosen for the study. Implant placement data of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension was collected from the dental hospital record system. Result data was tabulated in excel and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Software for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The non parametric Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing implant placement is 4.2%, hypertension is 2.2% and coexisting diabetes mellitus and hypertension is 1.7% with a higher incidence in the male population and more common in the age group of 40 to 60 years. Knowledge about the prevalence of these conditions will be helpful to the clinician for proper management setup and precise diagnosis before implant therapy can prevent surgical and postoperative complications resulting in long term success of dental implants

EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND CAVITATION VERSUS PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE IONTOPHORESIS ON CENTRAL OBESITY IN HYPERTENSIVE WOMEN

Mina Nashat Halim Farag; Ramez Yousry Fawzy Bakhoom; Ahmed Assem Abd El Rahim; Ahmed Aref Ahmed Hussein; Mahmoud Y Elzanaty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 821-832

Background/aim: Central obesity (CO) confers a great threat on the cardio-metabolic health of
population. Central obesity is directly matched with increased visceral abdominal fat and it is also
matched with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer.
Purpose of the study: This study was designed to compare between the effect of ultrasound
cavitation and phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis on central obesity in hypertensive women.
Material and methods:It is a randomized controlled trial performed on 40 hypertensive centrally
obese females divided into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 20 females received
ultrasound cavitation, Group (B) consisted of 20 females received phosphatidylcholine
iontophoresis. The primary outcome measures were waist circumference, visceral fat range,
systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results: the results showed that there was statistically
significant improvement in central obesity and hypertension in Group A but there was statistically
significant improvement in central obesity but non-significant improvement in hypertension in
Group B. Improvement in Group A is more significant than in Group B regarding the percent of
decline in WC, VFR and DBP. Conclusion: there was improvement in central obesity and blood
pressure in women after applying ultrasound cavitation and phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis
with better results in ultrasound cavitation than phosphatidylcholine iontophoresis.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY SUPPORT AND COMPLIANCE IN IMPLEMENTING DIET PROGRAMS FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE WITH HYPERTENSION

Nina Sumarni; Citra WindaniMambang Sari; Dadang Purnama

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 99-106

Family support plays an essential role in understanding lifestyle changes associated with chronic illness, changes needed to help sick members. Family support for patients with hypertension can improve health, and intensive support can reduce pain and help carry out a more disciplined diet program to be maximized. Low adherence to treatment makes it difficult to control his blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between family support and commitment in implementing a diet program for elderly Hypertension in Muarasanding Village, Garut Regency.The type of correlative descriptive study that describes the relationship of family support with hypertension diet compliance. This study's population is hypertension sufferers in the Muara Sanding village located in the SiliwangiGarut Health Center working area. The sample is a total sampling of 51 respondents. The instrument used was a questionnaire. The validity test uses the product-moment correlation technique; the reliability test in GarutJayaraga Village is 20 elderly. Data analysis uses chi-square.The results of this study received as much support as 57% with a level of adherence to carrying out a diet of 55%, and categories that lacked family support 43% and who did not carry out dietary compliance 45%. Results of analysis Sig = 0.42 (a <0.05) means that HO is rejected and accepts H1. There is a relationship between family support and adherence in implementing a diet in the elderly with hypertension. The analysis also found a significant correlation value, with an equivalent odds ratio of 3,889, meaning families who support have the possibility of 3,889 times to comply with the hypertension diet program. Conclusion: There is a relationship between family support with adherence to implementing the diet.

The role of physical psychotherapy on quality of life in patients with hypertension with alexithymia

AtefehHaghighat .; Raheleh Haghighat .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2154-2162

Studies have shown that it is easier for people, who are emotionally capable, to cope with life challenges and therefore they are healthier psychologically. Alexithymia exacerbates vulnerability to physical illness and predisposes to chronic illness. The aim of this study was to determine the role of physical psychotherapy on the quality of life of patients with hypertension with alexithymia. In this clinical trial with a pre-test post-test design, 60 patients with hypertension with alexithymia were purposefully selected from the patients referred to the health centers of Semnan and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The intervention was performed during 1.5 months in the experimental group according to the steps designed in the protocol of physical psychotherapy. Data were collected using the Demographic Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia and Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and analyzed by descriptive, inferential and MANCOVA statistics. In multivariate analysis of covariance, there was a significant difference in the linear composition of alexithymia components and quality of life. Overall, physical psychotherapy has had a significant effect on improving alexithymia, blood pressure and quality of life. Therefore, according to the research findings, it can be said that physical psychotherapy has been effective in improving the quality of life and controlling blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure with alexithymia and performing this treatment in the above patients is recommended as a suitable complementary treatment.

THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL PSYCHOTHERAPY ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION WITH ALEXITHYMIA.

Atefeh Haghighat; Raheleh Haghighat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2345-2353

Studies have shown that it is easier for people, who are emotionally capable, to cope with life challenges and therefore they are healthier psychologically. Alexithymia exacerbates vulnerability to physical illness and predisposes to chronic illness. The aim of this study was to determine the role of physical psychotherapy on the quality of life of patients with hypertension with alexithymia. In this clinical trial with a pre-test post-test design, 60 patients with hypertension with alexithymia were purposefully selected from the patients referred to the health centers of Semnan and randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The intervention was performed during 1.5 months in the experimental group according to the steps designed in the protocol of physical psychotherapy. Data were collected using the Demographic Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia and Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and analyzed by descriptive, inferential and MANCOVA statistics. In multivariate analysis of covariance, there was a significant difference in the linear composition of alexithymia components and quality of life. Overall, physical psychotherapy has had a significant effect on improving alexithymia, blood pressure and quality of life. Therefore, according to the research findings, it can be said that physical psychotherapy hasbeen effective in improving the quality of life and controlling blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure with alexithymia and performing this treatment in the above patients is recommended as a suitable complementary treatment.

STUDY OF PREHYPERTENSION AND HYPERTENSION AMONG URBAN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS AND THE DIETARY DETERMINANTS OF CHILDHOOD HYPERTENSION

Haris M. M; Soundarya M; Ravikumar G; Kamalakshi G Bhat; Basavaprabhu Achappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1664-1674

Background: Adolescent health is important as theyare under a great amount of stress due to academic and peer pressures. This study aims to determine prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in school adolescents and to identify diet as a risk factor in these children.Methodology - Cross sectional study was conducted among school adolescents(11- 14years). Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. 24 hour recall method was used to record the dietary intake and the total sodium, potassium, fat, fructose, caffeine, uric acid and fiber in the diet was estimated. Results - 500 adolescents were studied. Among the study population 6.4% were pre-hypertensive and 7.4% hypertensive with increased prevalence in girls. 9.8% were obese and 14.2% overweight. 14.3% obese and 11.3% overweight children had pre-hypertension. 30.6% obese and 9.9% overweight children had hypertension. Dietary analysis showed that normotensive children consumed lesser fructose (258mg), fat (12.8gm), sodium (89mg), and uric acid with more potassium (89mg), and fiber (10.2gm) per day as compared to the hypertensive children. Conclusions: There is high prevalence of asymptomatic hypertension among obese and over-weight school adolescents. Dietary differences were found between the hypertensive and normotensive adolescents with increased fat consumption showing statistical correlation with hypertension

The Oxidative Effect Of Nlrp3 And Cyp2e1 In Development Of Renal Failure Associated With Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus Diseases

Alyaa Abdulhadi Salih; Kareem Hamadx Kareem Hamad Ghali2

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 636-644

Renal Failure (RF) is devastating pathology with several causative factors, resulting in dialysis or kidney transplantation needed by end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The progression of RF is closely related to systemic oxidative stress, which causes various complications such as hypertension and diabetic mellitus . The current study was focusing on the oxidative effects of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 gene expression in the pathological development of renal failure disease with hypertension and diabetic mellitus as complications associated diseases. This study involved 100 patients diagnosed clinically and seriologicaly with renal failure 52 males and 48 females, their age from 17 to 80 years . Also the study comprise (18 males and 12 females) healthy volunteers as control group. RNA extracted from blood samples and converted to cDNA which subjected to real-time PCR for detection gene expression . The results detected that Hypertension and diabetic mellitus are the important risk factors that causes and advances renal failure disease . NLRP3 and CYP2E1 have significantly overexpression (1.60 folds and 5.37 folds ) respectively in RF patients compared with healthy group ( p <0.05). However, the expression of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 increase in diabetic mellitus (2.16 and 1.58 ) respectively than hypertension in RF patients with and control group (p<0.05). Diabetic mellitus generate free radical consequently causes ROS, hence elevated expression in oxidative NLRP3 and CYP2E1 genes in diabetic RF patients .

EFFECT OF YOGIC PRACTICES ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTIEN (LDL) AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTIEN (HDL) AMONG HYPERTENSIVE MIDDLE AGED WOMEN

M. Subha; S. Murugesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1090-1095
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.112

To access the influence of the yogic behaviours of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein random group laboratory study was accessed which is the aim.  Using the Chennai random sampling group method 30 middle aged hypersensitive women were randomly selected in the age group of 35-45 years which were further divided into two groups of 15 participants, I and II. In hypertensive middle aged women than in control group low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) have been predicted for important differences in selected biochemical variables.  Before the launch of the training programme a preliminary test for two types of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was performed. Yogic practice for 60 minutes, 6 days a week for a total period of eight weeks were given to Group I subjects.  For group II (Control Group) there was an active resting place.  On the same selected dependent variables after the experimental period the two groups were retested again.  Between the experimental group and the control group to determine the important discrepancies the study of (ANCOVA) was used.  The significance test was set at a degree of confidence of 0.05.  Due to the Yogic behaviours among hypertensive middle aged people such as Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) the experimental group showed important differences on selected biochemical variables which was revealed by the study.

Effects of Psychological Distress on Hypertension among Liquefaction Refugees in Petobo Shelter

Herawanto .; Vidyana Aulia Rahma; Muh. Jusman Rau; Sendhy Krisnasari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 89-96

The purpose of this research is to know the psychological disorder in the incidence of hypertension among liquefaction refugees in Petobo Shelter. A cross-sectional design was performed. The total number of patients who visit the health post at a Petobo shelter is 3,079 people taken in accidental sampling. The analysis uses the univariate and bivariate analyses at a degree of confidence of 95% (α = 0.05). The chi-square test results show that anxiety (ρ = 0,031), depression (ρ = 0,008), and stress (ρ = 0,000) are associated with the incidence of hypertension. It is expected that hypertension sufferers should do breathing exercises, perform physical activity and meditation relaxation to avoid anxiety, negative thoughts, also avoiding depression, stress and do interact with someone else so that the mind is not saturated and easy to forget the negative thoughts.

Preparation And Characterization Of Immediate Releasefilm Coated Tablets Of Valsartan -Hydrochlorothiazide (160/12.5mg)

Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Vikas Bansal; Amit Mittal; Mamta Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2915-2948

Objective:The motive of the currentworkwas to Preparation and Characterization of Immediate Release film coated tablets Valsartan -Hydrochlorothiazide (160/12.5mg) to reduce the multiple dosing and to achieve more effective reduction of hypertension.
Background: The oral route is the very effective and favoured method for the introduction of medications to systemic circulation because of ease of diagnosis, patient compliance and flexibility.
Materials and Methods: Valsartan - Hydrochlorothiazide tablet tends to film coated to prevent the drug from degradation. Preliminary studies were performed out with the excipients and the drug and their physical & chemical compatibilities were checked and the drugs and they found compatible.The method of preparation was the wet granulation method.
Results:A maximum of nine formulation batches (f1-f9) have been prepared.Prepared formulations have also been tested for weight variance, friability, disintegration, analysis, in vitro drug release profile.The criteria tested are contained within the guidelines.The parameters tested were found within the limits. Among all formulations, the product of batch f9 has acceptable friability, assay and dissolution profile. It was further exposed to an advanced stability test at 40±20C/75±5 per cent RH.

Distribution Of Metabolic Syndrome Components In Patients Younger Than 50 Years Of Age Of Indian Population

Dr. Inder pal Singh; Dr. Kamaldeep kaur; Dr. Lovleen Bhatia; Dr. Ajay pal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4786-4793

Background: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Present study aimed to assess the frequency distribution of various components of metabolic syndrome in patients younger than 50 years of age.
Materials and method: The study group consisted of 100 patients less than 50 years of age admitted at Rajindra Hospital with acute coronary disease.
Results: Most common age group was 45-50 years in both males and females, with 66% patients belongs to this age group. 37 patients of ACS with MS, most common component in males was raised blood pressure (SBP and DBP), in females most common component was impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Waist circumference was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MetS as compared to patients of ACS without MetS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MS as compared to patients of ACS without MS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS with MetS as compared to patients of ACS without MetS. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) Serum triglycerides(TGc) and Serum high density lipoproteins (LDL) was statistically significantly raised in patients of ACS
Conclusion: All the five components of metabolic syndrome i.e. waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, serum high density lipoproteins were significantly associated with patients of acute coronary syndrome with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients of acute coronary syndrome without metabolic syndrome.

ERYTHROCYTE TRANSMEMBRANE FLUX AND MEMBRANE TRANSPORT ABNORMALITY IN PATHOGENESIS OF HYPERTENSION LEADING TO NEPHROLITHIASIS

RENUGADEVI KARTHIKEYAN; JULIUS AMALDAS; PRAKASH DHARMALINGAM

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1698-1705

The epidemiological relationship between nephrolithiasis and hypertension is well-known. Patients with hypertension are at increased risk for nephrolithiasis and those with nephrolithiasis are at risk for hypertension. An anomaly in RBC Oxalate transport and reduced activities of adenosine triphosphatases has been reported in patients with hypertension when compare to control subjects. This study presents an abnormal increase in transmembrane flux of oxalate in RBC of hypertensive subjects and it might be due to membrane degradation caused by oxalate-induced free radicals depleting erythrocyte thiol contents and impaired adenosine triphosphatases activity resulting in tissue injury and defective membrane transport. Thus relative risk of hypertension was significantly associated with increased oxalate flux rate and impaired adenosine triphosphatases activity in stone formers. This association is important when treating patients with nephrolithiasis since those with hypertension may require unique dietary and medical therapy.

AWARENESS, KNOWLEDGE AND PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION, SLEEP APNEA AND SLEEP - DISORDERED BREATHING DIFFICULTIES IN MALES AMONG CHENNAI POPULATION

Shruthi Manivannan; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Murugan Thamaraiselvan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 810-821

Hypertension, sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing are the important Global public health challenges the world is facing nowadays with the highest prevalence rate all over the world. Recently a large body of work has been going on in finding the association of sleep- disordered breathing, sleep Apnea and Hypertension in the Male population.The aim of this study is to determine the association of sleep- disordered breathing, sleep Apnea and Hypertension in the young, Adult and aged Male population.Standard survey questions based on sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea and hypertension were designed and was uploaded in an online survey platform and circulated among the males. A total of 100 responses were collected and were statistically analysed. In this study we observed that there is an association of sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea with hypertension (p<0.001, independent sample t-test).Since there were no previous studies to encounter this association in India. This study serves as an eye opener for the early diagnosis and treatment of sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea and hypertension in the young, Adult and aged Male population. This study will be beneficial in the awareness of health care professionals to consider the evaluation of patients with hypertension, sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing

ORAL NIFEDIPINE VERSUS ORAL LABETALOL IN THE TREATMENT OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

R.P. Patange; Archna V. Rokadhe; Ghori R. Shinde; Sanjay N. Jadhav; Ashitosh Bahulekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4136-4141

This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of two anti-hypertensive drugs: oral Nifedipine and oral Labetalol in cases of extreme preeclampsia in terms of their side effect profile, BP regulation, time taken to lower BP, and number of doses required. The objective of the study was to calculate the time required to reduce the blood pressure to the target level of 90 / 100 mmHg diastolic and less than 160mmHg systolic.In the labetalol group the mean SBP before treatment was 158mm of Hg which was reduced to 140 mm of Hg. The decline rate in the labetalol group was 11.77%. This study proved that labetalol reduces the BP more effectively than nifedipine and also has minimal side effects with less frequent dosing schedule as compared to nifedipine thus indicating that labetalol is better than nifedipine in lowering the BP in cases of preeclampsia.

BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AND URBAN AREA IN AND AROUND KARAD

D. B. Potdar; Prashnt P. Shah; Naredra P. Porval

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4168-4174

A cross sectional study among 1000 school going children of age group 6 – 16 years was conducted to study the relation of Blood Pressure with variables Like Body Mass Index, Socio Economic Status, Family History of Hypertension, Age and Sex at our tertiary care hospital Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. 1.The study group had 100 (10%) children of 13, 14, 15 and 16 years, 90 (9%) children of 6, 8, 9 and 12 years and 80 (8%) children of 7, 10 and 11 years. 12.Systolic hypertension was observed in 13.3% of overweight and 6.7% of obese children. Systolic prehypertension was observed in 11.7% of overweight and 13.3% of obese children. BMI was significantly associated with pre hypertension and hypertension (SBP) in children (p<0.001). Diastolic hypertension was observed in 16.7% of overweight and 6.7% of obese children. Diastolic prehypertension was observed in 18.3% of overweight and 20% of obese children. Only 1.7% and 0.9% of prehypertension and hypertensive children had normal BMI.