Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Relapse

Retainers in Orthodontics- A Review

Sanjeev Soni; Sukhpal Kaur; Manmeet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2308-2316

Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pretreatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. The aim of this article is to provide an insight into the various modalities of retention and types of appliance used in achieving this objective.


Bangalia, Satyendr Sonkariya, Chethan C.S., Laxman Singh Charan, Anil Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1706-1712

Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of clinical findings due to kidney damage. This includes protein in urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant edema. The main cause of hyperlipidemia in patients with NS is probably increased hepatic lipogenesis, a non-specific reaction to falling oncotic pressure secondary to hypoalbuminemia. Hyperlipidemia is usually observed during the active phase of the disease and disappears with resolution of proteinuria. However, it may persist in some cases, leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis in later life and development of progressive renal injury. The current study was carried out to evaluate dyslipidemia in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out at outpatient and inpatient units of Department of Pediatrics, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India during January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60 consecutive children aged between one year and 18 years with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome or presenting with relapse of the disease. All patients were routinely monitored with daily weight, BP, abdominal girth, intake/output chart and urine albumin. Patients previously diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with relapse were also admitted. Serum lipid profile was done by standard methods at three points of time: during disease activity, after attainment of remission and two weeks after completion of steroid therapy in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome.
Results: Lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy (All p values<0.001). There was significant elevation of mean total cholesterol level in case of relapse as compared to the first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.048), however, LDL, VLDL and HDL were not significantly different. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol level at admission in subsequent relapses as compared to first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.01).
Conclusion: In children with nephrotic syndrome, lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy. Total cholesterol level was significantly elevated in children with relapse as compared to those with first episode of nephrotic syndrome.

Determinant Factors Related to Relapse of Schizoprenic Patients at the Islamic Mental Hospital

MahyarSuara .; Sandeep Poddar; Roy Rillera Marzo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 129-139

Background: During the last century, there has been a high increase in health problems in the world, including Indonesia, one of it is mental health. The actual prevalence of mental health disorders worldwide remains poorly understood. Mental health is very much underreported, and under-diagnosed.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with schizophrenia relapse of patients at the Islamic Mental Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Settings and Design
The research method with a quantitative approach was performed with a total sample comprisedof 150 respondents using primary data.
Material and Methods
The data collection method used was library research, field research (observation), and questionnaire research design through a cross-sectional approach.
Statistical Analysis
Univariate analysis process (frequency distribution) and Bivariate analysis with the Chi-square test and multi-variate with path analysis was used in this study
Based on the results of the validity of the instrument, the variable of compliance for taking medication (X1), Stress variable (X2), Drug Abuse variable (X3), the Psychology variable (X4), the variable of Emotional Expression (X5), Relapse among schizophrenic patients (Y) was considered. The results revealed that the correlation of the adherence to the antipsychotic drugs consumption (X1), stress level (X2), and psychological response (X4) to the relapse in schizophrenia patients (Z) is acceptable, whereas the strongest or dominant correlation is the stress factor (X2).
The results of this study can provide a plan for schizophrenic patients in the country. Since schizophrenic patients need medication and treatment for a long time, the researchers recommend for the government to provide medical assistance.

Evaluation Of Relapse In Orthognathic Surgery: An Original Research

Dr. Bharti; Dr. Kunal Mohindru; Dr Vikranth Shetty; Dr Shilpa Sunil Khanna; Dr. Inderjit Murugendrappa Gowdar; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3210-3215

Aim: The present study was conducted to analyse the stability of outcomes achieved by surgical treatment of skeletal class III patients in terms of the rate and extent of relapses with the help of cephalogram. Methodology: A total of 11 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery were included. The primary inclusion criterion was a skeletal class III treated by SSO surgery combined with maxillary advancement (Le Fort I) surgery. Analysis was based on three postoperative cephalograms per patient. Results: We observed relapse (defined, in accordance with Proffit, as changes >2 mm or 2°) at a rate of 24% after SSO surgery. We noted a maxillary relapse in 6 of the 11 patients who had undergone Le Fort I surgery, with SNA values initially increasing by +3° from T0 and T1 in keeping with the advancement procedure and subsequently decreasing by −1° toward baseline yielding a relapse rate of 30%. Conclusion: The majority of patients exhibited stable treatment outcomes. As with all surgical procedures, success demands of the surgeon an intimate knowledge and understanding of physiology and anatomy.

Modern approaches in the treatment of children under three years of age with congenital clubfoot using the Ponsetí method

1Jasurbek Urinov; Akhror Djuraev; Qayum Ashankhodjaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2572-2579

Abstract: Despite modern advances in paediatric traumatology and orthopaedics in the
treatment of patients with foot deformities, conservative and surgical strategies of cure are
nevertheless considered unsuccessful, to a giant extent if the problem is a recurrent or
justified congenital ailment of the central or peripheral apprehensive system. For the therapy
of children with congenital clubfoot we have used a huge range of treatments, including
purposeful techniques (corrective massage, TPT, carrying functional tires), fixation methods
(bandaging, staged plaster bandages), physiotherapy (electrostimulation, hydrotherapy, UHF,
ultrasound, electrophoresis, etc.). Specialized remedy included: orthopaedic (wearing
orthopaedic footwear with inlays, shafts, bandages made of thermoplastic), conservative and
surgical treatment. Analysis of the bought remedy effects in distinct age groups showed that
the major undertaking of treatment and its success depends on early restoration of anatomical
relations in the joint. Thus, in teenagers under one-year-old, appropriate diagnostics and
software of atraumatic functional methods of remedy primarily based on Ponset approach
allowed achieving good results with a significant discount in the number of plaster bandages
and accordingly decreasing the cure duration in universal to 2 months. The find out about of
the experience of cure of congenital clubfoot based totally on its cloth showed that the use of a
unique cure approach relies upon on the assessment of the severity of foot deformation. The
chosen treatment systems need to be intensive and consistent, beginning from the early
duration after birth, when the foot deformity is cellular and bendy to correction. The new
technique of surgical treatment, change of achillotomyms in accordance to the Ponset method,
allowed us to get suitable beauty result barring lowering the effectivity of the surgical
intervention. Another benefit of this technique reduces the length of the operation and reduces
soft tissue trauma in the Achilles tendon area.

Cytogenetic and immunological alterations of recurrent bladder cancer

Shukhrat Ziyadullaev; Obid Elmamatov; Nodir Raximov; Farkhod Raufov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1877-1883

Abstract: In this review, we discussed genetic and immunological changes of bladder
cancer along with relapse of this disease; however, it should be noted that in most cases,
multiple genetic and immunological changes occur simultaneously or mutually dependent
on each other. Many genetic mutations disrupt the function of genes involved in
regulation, and conversely, chromosomal aberrations lead to changes in transcription.
Pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium of bladder into cancer are multifactorial
processes. Chronic inflammation causes the initiation and progression of the main
pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of
immune cells in bladder cancer. Although the immune response protects the bladder by
suppressing tumor growth, certain immune cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and
T-lymphocytes contribute the development and progression of the tumor.


Keerthika Saravanan; Arthi Balsubramaniam; Santhosh Kumar MP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1091-1098

It has been established that smoking is a very different addiction to break. Many smokers persist in
tobacco use for several years and cycle through multiple periods of remission and relapse Smoking is not a
single event process and relapse is an ordinary component of this process. International guidelines have
greatly emphasized on relapse prevention. Very few studies examine the association between the number
of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and physiological
distress. This study aims to evaluate association between peer pressure and relapses during tobacco quit. A
retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 75,000 patient records of University hospital for a period
of nine months from June 2019 to March 2020. About 150 case reports containing information on tobacco
dependence and quit rate (in terms of number of relapses) were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive
statistics was done to present the sociodemographic details. Chi-square association was done to find the
association. Most of the participants (34%) were in the age group 29-38 years, followed by 49-59 years
(26%), 19-28 years (24%) and 39-49 years (16%). About 13.3%, 20%, 4%, 10% of 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs,
39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs of patients respectively had peer pressure during their quitting process.About
11.3% 20%, 8.67 and 13.3% of patients in the age group 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs, 39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs had
no relapses during the quitting process.No significant association between age and number of relapses
(p=0.746; not significant). Hence proving no influence of age on relapse during quitting process. About
28% of patients with peer pressure and 25.3% without peer pressure had no relapse during quitting.
However 19.3% and 27.3% with and without peer pressure had >1 number of relapses. during their
quitting process,No significant association of peer pressure in relapse (p=0.295, not significant). No
influence of peer pressure on relapse during the quitting process. Peer pressure is not much influencing the
number of relapses during the quitting process, however a watch over this factor to be taken in account
during cessation counselling