Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : CVD


Narendra Pratap Singh, Sushil Kumar Chaudhary, Pankaj Mehrotra, Satya Prakash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 5289-5296

Gout is a type of arthritic disease correlated with several pains, stiffness and swelling of one or more joints. This disease can be diagnosed by testing synovial fluid, uric acid levels etc. the most commonly prescribed drug were probenecid, allopurinol, feburostat and NSAIDs. The main aim of the study is to detect whether allopurinol and probenecid shows efficiency in treating CVD patients with gout.
Aim: to study the effect of allopurinol and probenecid in gouty arthritis with CVD in tertiary care hospital.
Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 100 gout patients. All the patients were equally divided into two groups; group -1, 50 patients were treated with allopurinol and group 2, 50 patients treated with probenecid. All this patients monitored with symptoms and also tested with blood pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea, and blood uric acid.
Results: In our study male are more compared with female with a age group of 66 – 70 year in both group 1 & 2. Gout is mostly seen at ankle with swelling as a symptom followed by pain in both the groups. After 3 months of treatment in group 1 significant was observed in uric acid values, but in group 2 both uric acid and urea are shown significant. On comparing both the groups after 3 months uric acid levels shows significant difference between group 1 and 2 respectively.
Conclusion:  probenecid is the better drug of choice when compared with that of allopurinol in controlling uric acid levels in gouty arthritis

The Comparative study of Homocysteine level and its association with lipid profile in smoker and Non smoker healthy adults of Udaipur city

Ms Rashmi , Dr A K Verma, Ms Anita Yadav, Ms Harpreet kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5900-5908

Background: Smoking is strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular disease and is the biggest single avoidable health habit contributing to chronic diseases in the western  world.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the correlation of lipid profile & Homocysteine and their                                           comparison in smoker and non-smoker.
Methodology: Total 300 patients were include in this study, in which patients ranging within age 20-40 years, they were further  categorized according to use of tobacco smoking. Group A- This group consist of tobacco smoker patients between ages 20- 40 years. (n=150).Group B-This group consist of tobacco non-smoker patients between ages 20-40 years. (n=150). 10 ml blood was drawn through vein puncture. From all collected blood samples serum lipid pofile, Liver function test  and Homocysteine levels measured. All collected data were analysed statistically to calculate p value to see the difference of significance.
Results: The Mean concentration of Total cholesterol  in smoker  group was  205.31 ±39.47 while that of  Non smoker control group 189.69 ±36.81 and the difference among them found to be  highly significant .The Mean concentration of S.HDL  in smoker group was 35.3±7.89 and 42.56±39.85 in Nonsmoker  group respectively and the difference among them found to be  highly significant. similar to that  S.LDL concentration in soker group was 128 ±30.57 and in non smoker  group 115.31 ±26.27 and difference among them found to be  highly significant . Serum Triglyceride  concentration in case group was 170.10±25.60while that of control group 147.21 ± 67.36 and p value is <0.001 so the difference among them is also  significant.The Mean concentration of S.homocysteine in smoker  group was 27.32±17.41 and 6.66±3.09  in control group and the difference among them found to be  highly significant.
Conclusion: In conclusion, smoking produces adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine, thus increasing the cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are needed to establish that smoking-related alterations have influences on the atherosclerotic lesions of smokers

Evaluation of prevelance of cardiac risk in diabetic patients: An original research

Dr. Amiya Kumar Nayak, Dr Manoj Kumar Gupta, Dr. Vasif Mayan MC, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari, Dr. Taral Parikh, Silvya Grace Bombay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 928-933

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the prevalence of cardiac risk factors in case of diabetic patients.
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 800 patients with type 2 DM. We classified the participants into three groups according to the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. We assessed the prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors and their association with HbA1c levels through a detailed history, full clinical examination, and laboratory tests.
Results: We found that 75% of the participants were males, 25.5% elderly, 60.25% had hypertension, 60.75% had dyslipidemia, 33.25% were overweight or obese, 19.75% had a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), 55.75% had established CVD, 42.5% were smokers, and only 12.25% were physically inactive. We found that 84% of the participants had ≥ two cardiovascular risk factors other than DM. HbA1c level was ≥ 7% in 77% of patients. After multivariate regression analysis, we found a significant association of higher systolic blood pressure (BP), more elevated diastolic BP, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist circumference, old age, long duration of DM, and an increase in the number of clustered CV risk factors with a higher HbA1c level. At the same time, insulin therapy was significantly associated with a lower HbA1c level.
Conclusion: All type 2 diabetic patients in Upper Egypt villages have other associated CV risk factors. The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association with higher HbA1c levels. These findings require the thought of associated CV risk factors in choosing medical treatments to optimize glycemic control and multifactorial intervention to improve CV risk

A Study on Serum Myeloperoxidase, Apolipoprotein B and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 864-870

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia
due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs due to a
progressive decline in the ability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin as well as
insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The pathophysiology of T2D is characterized
by excessive accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscles,
eventually manifesting as insulin resistance in these tissues and pancreatic beta cell
dysfunction that ultimately leads to hyperglycemia.Metabolic abnormalities such as
dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, or insulin resistanceand obesity play key roles in the
induction and progression of type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM). Objectives: To estimate
the levels of serum myeloperoxidase, apolipoprotein B and glycated hemoglobin in type
2 diabetic patients and also in healthy controls, to observe the relationship between
serum MPO with apo B and glycated hemoglobin and also between glycated
haemoglobin with apo B in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Case control study was done taking 30 cases of type 2 diabetes
mellitus and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. In all the subjects, concentrations
of HbA1c, serum apo B and serum MPO were estimated. HbA1c was measured by
turbidimetric method and serum Apo B by immune turbidimetric method using semi
auto analyser CHEM 5 Plus. Serum MPO was measured by ELISA method using
ELISA reader.

Prospective and observational ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Pratibha Gupta, Dr. Anchal Sharma, Dr. Ranchit Narang, Dr. Govind Khatri, Dr. Aastha Makkar, Dr. Sahil Chawla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1103-1107

Aim: To evaluate fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients
using ultrasonography.
Methodology: The prospective and observational study was conducted in the Department of
Radiology, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Himachal
Pradesh for the period 9 months. 300 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and ultrasound
abdomen showing fatty changes in liver without any other co-morbidities were included.
Patients were divided in three groups according to the duration of the diagnosis of diabetes.
The distributions of different groups were GROUP A- less than 5 years, GROUP B-in
between 5 to 10 years and GROUP C-more than 10 years. A brief history was taken of the
patient’s complaints and then the patients Random blood sugar and BMI values, as mentioned
in the patient’s case paper were recorded and then ultrasonographic evaluation of the study
subjects was performed by a single radiologist and the following parameters were examined
after obtaining informed consent-Liver echogenicity, Portal Vein Doppler study, Mesenteric
fat pad thickness and Carotid Artery Doppler study. Study method was Interview schedule
questionnaire, OPD records, bedside tickets, physical examination and laboratory
Results: Out of the 300 patients, 145 (48.3%) were males, and 155 (51.7%) were females.
Majority (39%) of the patients belonged to 50-60 years of age group followed by 25.7%
patients in the age group of 40-50 years. 18.3% belonged to 60-70 tears of age, 10.7% were
less than 40 years, and 6.3% belonged to more than 70 years of age. Out of the 300 cases, 225
(75%) cases had fatty liver and 75 (25%) cases had non-fatty liver. Out of the included
patients, 33.4% (100) were in group A, 40% (120) were in group B, and 26.6% (80) were in
group C. Out of 300 patients, 70 (23.3%) cases had ischemic changes, but majority of patients
(230, 76.7%) did not have ischemic changes.
Conclusion: Liver ultrasound examination should be considered in every patient with newly
diagnosed type 2 diabetes because the prevalence of NAFLD is extremely high in this group
of patients. It can be said that there was an association between cardiovascular risk factors
and NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.