Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Anemia


Comparative study of oral iron and intravenous iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women in India

Soubhagya Talawar, Hanumant V Nipanal, Rashmi Naganagoudar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1100-1108

Background: Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide, causing an unfavorable status in respect to upcoming pregnancy. About 20-50% world’s population is anemic among them the most common risk factor is pregnancy.
Material and Methods: All pregnant women suffered from iron deficiency anemia with hemoglobulin level 6-10 gm/dl and gestational age 16-32 were included in this study.Total 300 antenatal patients were involved in this study. All women attending antenatal OPD were screened for anemia. All women attending antenatal clinic were screened for anemia between 16-32 weeks of gestation. All participants were subjected to thorough history followed by clinical examination blood investigations such as complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, serum ferritin values, liver and renal function tests, stool examinations for worm infestations and occult blood loss of all cases were carried out and antenatal investigations as per our institution protocol were undertaken. The cases were randomly divided into two groups of 150 each. Oral Group: was given oral iron tablets containing 100 mg of elemental iron and 500 microgram folic acid daily throughout pregnancy. Intravenous Group: was given a 100 mg of elemental iron as iron sucrose. The formula used for calculation of total required IV elemental iron in the form of iron sucrose, that is, Total iron dose required (mg) = 2.4 x weight in kg x (target Hb – actual Hb of patient) g/dl + 500.17 The total calculated TDI was administered within three consecutive days, up to a maximum of 500 mg per day infusion in 500 ml of normal saline over a period of three to four hours. The infusion was given under supervision to avoid any untoward side effects. Any minor or major side effects were documented.

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Estimate the Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Vegetarian Outpatients Between 18-60 Years of Age Presenting at a Tertiary Care Centre

Devendra Dadhich, Darshan Kumar Bhargava, Mukesh Verma, Rajesh Meena, Ummed Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10954-10962

Background: Vegetarianism has been well known and commonly found in India since
ancient times. Animal products provide the only dietary source of vitamin B12. Vegetarianism
is a well-known risk factor for vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study to determine the
prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarian outpatients, between the age groups
of 18 and 60 years, visiting the internal medicine outpatient department of a tertiary level
teaching hospital.
Materials& Methods: A hospital based prospective study in department of medicine at
government S.K. Medical College, Sikar, Rajasthan, India during one year period. A
prevalence study for any factor is best done in the community – in a lot of situations that
would reduce the bias of a hospital study. This being a hospital study has its own limitations.
However as far as possible we wanted to choose a population in our hospital survey that
would most closely reflect the community or the general population at largeVegetarian
patients were defined as patients that had been consuming a diet devoid of any form of meat,
at least for three completed years prior to the date of recruitment. At the point of contact with
the subject in the outpatient department he or she also underwent certain biochemical and
haematological tests that included serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, and basic
haemograms.
Results: In our study population, 61.25% had levels below 200, 22.5% had levels
between200and300and16.25%hadlevelsabove300 pmol/L. The mean vitamin B12 levels in
the three groupsrespectively were 144.8, 269.2 and 233.4. There was no statistically
significant differencebetweenthe groupsbyANOVA. At various laboratory parameters among
the three varieties of dietconsumers – however the numbers were too small for any statistical
analysis betweenthem. Mean corpuscular values of less than or equal to 100fl were
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 9, Issue 3, Winter 2022
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categorised asnormocytic category and anything higher than that was considered as
qualifying formacrocytosis. A folate level cut-off at 9.5 was also taken to look for prediction
ofvitaminB12 deficiency.
Conclusion: The vegetarian diet can be sustainable at all stages of life and in all
physiological conditions, including infancy, pregnancy, lactation, senescence and sports.
However, underestimating the correct supplementation of cobalamin (Cbl) can nullify these
benefits. It is also necessary that the diet be balanced and nutritionally adequate to reduce the
risks of other deficiencies which could indirectly affect the absorption of Cbl.

ESTIMATION OF HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HIV PATIENTS ON ARTIN VINDHYA REGION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CD4 COUNT

Dr Hariom Gupta, Dr Ravi Prakash Pandey,Dr Ram Chandra Patel, Dr P. K. Baghel .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2597-2604

BACKGROUND
            Clinically significant hematologic abnormalities are common in HIV infection. Early identification of the hematologic abnormalities would lead to appropriate planning of treatment strategies and prevent further complication. This study was conducted in order to know the pattern of these hematologic abnormalities and its correlation with CD4 count among HIV patients of Vindhya region who were on ART.
METHODOLOGY
            This was a cross sectional, analytic study conducted in the Department of Medicine, SSMCRewa, M.P. between January 2020 to June 2021. The study group included a total number of 200 patients with HIV infection on ART. Patients were investigated for Hb%, total count, differential count and platelet count. CD4 count was obtained by flow cytometric analysis.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
To analyse the hematological profile of people living with HIV/AIDS and To identify the possible correlation between CD4 count and hematological abnormalities.
RESULTS
            Among 200 patients,52.0%were males and 48.0% were females.90.5% were from rural area.The maximum no. of cases had heterosexual mode of transmission, i.e. 179 (89.5%).Out of 145 anemic cases, maximum no. i.e. 68 (46.89%) cases had normocytic anemia followed by 42 (28.97%) cases of macrocytic anemia.Among patients who had ≤200 CD4 counts, 21.27% cases had severe anemia whereas among patients who had >500 CD4 counts none had severe anemia.11.0%ofpatients hadthrombocytopenia. Among patients who have ≤200 CD4 counts, 23.40% have thrombocytopenia whereas among patients who had>500 CD4 counts only 4.87% had thrombocytopenia.   
CONCLUSIONS
            Hematologic manifestations of HIV infection are common and frequent with progression of disease.
            The Present Study revealed a significant increase in the number and severity of cases of anemia with decreasing CD4 cell count.
            We have to provide proper awareness and education about the HIV safety measures, especially in young adolescents and adults, emphasizing to rural population.
            It is important to simultaneously treat HIV patients for hematologic manifestations to reduce morbidity.

Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Study

Bhausaheb Vasantrao Jagdale, Gouse Bin Mohammad Shaik, Vinay Kshirsagar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2413-2418

Background:Body  adiposity,  especially  ectopic  fat  accumulation,  has  a  range  of  metabolic  and cardiovascular effects. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function is associated with various regional fat quantities in euthyroid subjects.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted on 90 patients divided into 2 groups (a) newly detected hypothyroids (b) normal control group. Cases were matched with controls in having similar environment exposure and age group. All patients had routine symptom and clinical assessment. Laboratory investigations such as complete blood picture, pulmonary function test, chest x ray and thyroid function test were done. Data was entered and analyzed.
Results: In this study author observed a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio in hypothyroids. FVC between cases and controls did not show statistical significance, although the mean FVC was found to be lower in cases (1.44) as compared to controls (1.79). The various respiratory patterns seen in cases were as follows: obstructive pattern (32%), followed by mixed pattern and restrictive pattern (28%, 22% respectively). Furthermore, we observed that there was no significant correlation between TSH or fT4 with FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC.
Conclusion: This study shows that hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, thereby suggesting obstructive patterns of lung involvement. Therefore, PFT can be used routinely as a screening test for all hypothyroid patients to detect early respiratory dysfunction and thereby optimize treatment especially in obese patients and patients with pre-existing lung disease as hypothyroidism adds to their respiratory dysfunction.

Serum Iron Profile in Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Anemia

Sawjib Borphukan, Mohit Goyal, Girindra Nath Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1293-1302

Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum iron, total iron
binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and serum ferritin in diagnosed cases of
chronic kidney disease due to any aetiology not undergoing dialysis. Study also aimed to
determine the correlation between serum creatinine and serum iron levels in chronic
kidney disease in this group of patients.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the city of Dibrugarh and
which also included patients belonging to adjoining districts of Upper Assam from 20th
October 2018 to 19th October 2019 for a period of 1 year. A clinico-hematological study
was undertaken to evaluate the levels of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC),
transferrin saturation and serum ferritin in diagnosed cases of chronic kidney disease
(not on dialysis) due to any aetiology. Study included 110 old and newly diagnosed cases
of CKD attending the out–patient department not on dialysis. A cut-off off Hemoglobin
<13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women was used to make the diagnosis of anemia.
Results: Prevalence of anemia among CKD cases was observed as 74.6% with Hb level
<6 gm% was observed in 6.4% cases. Normocytic normochromic picture was observed
in 53.6% cases. Decreased level of serum iron, ferritin, TIBC and transferrin saturation
was seen in 99.1%, 16.4%, 52.75 and 78.2% cases respectively. Mean levels of
haemoglobin, RBC and iron indices (except for TIBC levels) decreased significantly
with increase in the CKD stage. A significant positive correlation was observed between
eGFR levels with haemoglobin and iron indices (except TIBC) while an inverse
correlation was observed with creatinine levels.
Conclusion: Anemia among Pre dialysis-CKD cases is mostly normocytic and moderate
in severity. Functional iron deficiency was the predominant form of iron deficiency in
these patients. Both hemoglobin and other iron indices worsens with progressive loss of
kidney functions.

A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ANEMIA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTEROF PREGNANT WOMEN IN GOVT GENERAL HOSPITAL & COLLEGE, NIZAMABAD

Dr. D. Anupama, Dr. G. Aparna, Dr. Saroja Adapa, Dr. B. V. Surendra .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 465-471

Background: In pregnancy, anemia is a common disorder and is associatedwith an increased risk ofmaternal, fetal, and neonatalmorbidity and mortality. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among III Trimester pregnant women attending OBG department, Government medical college &general hospital, Nizamabad.
Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted on 392 III Trimester pregnant women attending antenatal care at Governmentmedicalcollege&general hospital, Nizamabad from October 2020 to March 2021. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants were collected using a questionnaire and medical records. The haemoglobin was measured using an automated cell counter method and those with hemoglobin level less than 11 g/dl were considered as anaemic.
Results: The overall prevalence of anemiain our study was found to be 192 (48.9%).The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 35 years. out of all anaemic pregnant women about 100 were mildly anemic, 82 were moderate anaemic &10 were severe anaemic. Iron folic acid supplementation, antenatal care visit were significantly associated with the prevalence of anemia.
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of anemiain III trimester pregnant woman attending tertiary care hospital in Nizamabad.Iron supplementation and health education to create awareness about the importance of antenatal care are recommended to reduce anemia.

Comparison of anemia characterization between automated CBC analysis and conventional peripheral blood smear assessment

Dr. Mehak Kashyap, Dr. Naveen Kakkar, Dr. Neelam Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 380-388

Introduction: Complete blood count (CBC) by the automated hematology analyzers and microscopic
examination of peripheral smears have traditionally been used in the diagnosis of anemias. The advent
of automated hematology analyzers has improved accuracy and precision of test results and has reduced
subjective errors. This study aimed at
i) Comparing anemia characterization between automated CBC analysis and conventional peripheral
blood smear assessment.
ii) Studying RBC histogram patterns in various categories of anemia.
Materials and methods: Blood samples from 500 adult anemic patients were run in Sysmex XP-100
fully automated, 3-part differential hematology analyzer. In all patients, blinded peripheral blood smear
examination by two observers was done. Anemia categorization by peripheral blood smears and
automated red cell data was compared.
Results: The number of patients with normocytic normochromic anemia on automated CBC was 280
and on peripheral smear examination was 269. On automated CBC, 137 patients had microcytic
hypochromic anemia whereas 107 patients had microcytic hypochromic picture on microscopy.
Significantly higher number (p<.05) of patients (76) with microcytic normochromic morphology was
diagnosed on blood smear compared to automated counts (17). When RBC volume and hemoglobin
content were considered together, a Kappa value of. 447 was obtained indicating moderate agreement
between the automated and manual (peripheral blood smear) assessment of anemia.
Conclusion: Patients with most anemia types can be accurately diagnosed by automated CBC analysis.
The peripheral blood smear has limitations in cases with borderline MCVs and mild hypochromia which
may be missed. It, however, still remains the cornerstone in the identification of abnormal RBC
morphology seen in hemolytic anemias.

Correlation Analysis of Anaemia with TSH Level and Anti-TPO Expression in Anti-TPO Positive Hypothyroid Patients

Bhawna Sandhir, Sumeet Chadha, Gagan Sandhir, Rajesh Kashyap, Suraj Bisht, Neeraj Joshi, Jagdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 176-181

Introduction: Elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase (Anti-TPO) antibodies and thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in hypothyroidism have been linked to the alter the
vitamin B12 metabolic pathway thereby imparting the anemia. Thyroid peroxidase is
an important enzyme responsible during organification of iodide for synthesis of
thyroid hormone. Antibodies to TPO are formed as a part of autoimmune response of
body causing autoimmune thyroiditis in patients. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase
(TPO) are clinically useful markers of thyroid autoimmunity
Objectives: Present study aims to correlate the thyroid stimulating hormone and antithyroid
peroxidase expression in Anti-TPO positive patients with the anemia.
Methods:60 patients who were anti-TPO positive and hypothyroid were recruited in
present study.TSH level, anti-TPO antibodies level and haemogram was analysed
among all patients.
Results: There was a positive correlation between the haemoglobin and TSH level (r=
0.09580). There was a negative correlation between the Haemoglobin and Anti-TPO
expression (r= -0.2086).
Conclusion: Present study revealed a correlation of anemia with TSH level and Anti-
TPO expression which have the diagnostic value. Anti-TPO positive hypothyroid
patients have risk of developing anaemia.

The Relationship between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Simple Febrile Convulsion in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 years

Mohammad Hadi Yarigarravesh; Shadi Izadbakhsh; Parastoo Amiri; Maryam Goudarzian; Mehdi Jalili Akbariyan; Kazem Hassanpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1049-1057

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between simple febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia in children. In this case-control study, 60 children aged 6 months to 5 years old with simple febrile convulsion hospitalized in the Pediatric Unit of Heshmatiyeh Hospital of Sabzevar. separately for case and control groups and the two groups were compared in terms of blood indexes and iron deficiency anemia. The significance level was considered Pvalue <0.05. The case and control groups were matched in terms of age and sex, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. The results showed the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the febrile convulsion group was somewhat lower than that of the control group. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups (p> 0.05). The results of this study showed that the risk of convulsion is not higher in cases with anemia. However, iron can be prescribed with caution for high-risk patients with a history of previous convulsion or a positive family history of this condition, if they suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Moreover, according to the results of previous studies and the present study, conducting extensive research simultaneously in several centers is recommended.

Assessment Of Erythropoietin Efficacy And Dosing In Hemodialysis Patients

Mostafa Fawzy Mohamed Selim; Essam Eldin Mahmoud Lotfy; Lamiaa Abd Elwahab Mohamed; Mahmoud Hosny Zahran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2461-2469

Background: Anemia is a common complication in Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It has a multi-factorial pathogenesis. Replenishing iron stores and giving ESAs are the main lines of treatment. There is a general agreement on the optimal route for iron supplementation in ESRD patients with the IV route but there is no such agreement on the optimal route for iron supplementation in pre-dialysis CKD patients. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) treatment represent an economic burden and has been linked to possible cardiovascular side effects. This study amid to assessing the efficacy of erythropoietin in treatment of anemia in CKD patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in chronic kidney disease patients who had undergone hemodialysis in Met-Ghamr hospital of nephrology from February 2019 to July 2019. Included 50 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, we tested the efficacy through comparing the efficacy low fixed ESA dose (4000 IU IV once weekly) versus high fixed dose (4000 IU IV three times weekly). We divided group into two groups, group A and group B. group A were put on a fixed dose of 4000 IU Epoetin alfa once weekly and group B were put on a fixed dose of 4000 IU Epoetin alfa three times weekly. Results: After 6 months, We found a significant difference in hemoglobin response of the two subgroups in favor of subgroup IID (P = 0.004). Conclusion: That low dose ESAs is less effective in correction of anemia in dialysis patients than high dose ESAs.

Impact Of Chronic Heart Failure On Comorbidities In Hot Climates On The Quality Of Life And Clinical Condition Of Patients

Tosheva Kh.; Xalilova F.; Gadaev A; Erkinova N.; Djuraeva N.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1080-1089

It is well known that one of the leading causes of death among the population is cardiovascular disease, and they are often complicated by CHF.
In European countries, the prevalence of CHF is 2.1%, with 90% of women over the age of 70 and 75% of men. In the United States, these numbers range from 1–1.5% and occur in 10% of the population over the age of 60.
According to a number of leading researchers around the world, the inclusion of concomitant diseases in CHF not only worsens its overall outcome, increases the number and duration of hospital treatments , but in some cases is also the leading cause of death. Some authors compare the dynamics of deaths observed in CHF with deaths due to oncological diseases.

EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC TOXIC HEPATITIS AND HEMATOLOGICAL FEATURES IN THE DYNAMICS OF MOTHER’S AND THE OFFSPRING LACTATION

Bakhtiyor Burtkhanovich KHASANOV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1367-1373

The aim of the research was to study the occurrence of autoimmune processes in chronic
hepatitis and its effect on the hematological parameters of the mother and offspring in the
dynamics of lactation. Material and research methods - the work was carried out on white
outbred female rats, in which, after heliotrine intoxication before pregnancy, the presence of
antihepatic antibodies in female rats was carried out by a passive hem agglutination reaction
according to Boyden's method, as well as hematological parameters in the mother and
offspring in the dynamics of lactation by conventional methods. The presence of
antihepatocytic autoantibodies during lactation was established, mainly in blood serum, and in
small amounts in the milk of female rats, therefore, antihepatic antibodies of the mother in
toxic hepatitis are not a pathological agent for offspring during breastfeeding. In the body of
female rats and offspring, anemia develops, progressing until the second week of lactation,
that is, the transition of pups to a mixed diet, therefore, it is more expedient to carry out
therapeutic measures before this period.

Review of Pharmacological Aspects of Nothapodytes nimmoniana species

B. Durga; A. Julius; S. RaghavendraJayesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1727-1732

Over 100 years of decay, major populace focus on traditional plants for treating massive disease due to the presence of active component. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of huge curiosity to scientists for focusing on exploring plant products. Nothapodytes foetida (also known as Mappia foetida or Nothapodytes nimmoniana) is an average size tree belonging to family Icacinaceae. It is distributed in Southern India, North India, Srilanka, Myanmar and Thailand. It is an imperative medicinal plant, the foremost source of a potent alkaloid, namely camptothecin, of a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities like anti-cancer, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal and also applied in the treatment of anemia. This review article compresses about the phytochemical constituent, pharmacological activity of bioactive component of N.nimmoniana species of root, stem, leaves and bark of the plants.

Processed Food For Anemia Prevention From Biscuit Diversification Of Mango Seed Flour (Mangifera Indica L.) And Moringa Leaves Powder (Moringa Oleifera)

Rini Tri Hastuti; Youstiana Dwi Rusita; Nur Rachmat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4718-4724

Anemia is a health problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries, where an estimated 30% of the world's population suffers from anemia. The incidence of anemia in Central Java in 2013 reached 57.1%. Moringa leaves are rich in nutrients and are a source of beta carotene, vitamin C, iron, and potassium. The mango seed flour without going through the sulfurization stage contains 20.00% carbohydrates, 14.83% fat, and 4.84% protein. The manufacture of biscuits made of the main ingredients, namely Moringa leaf flour and mango seed flour, can be useful for preventing anemia.
Purpose: This study aims to produce alternative products and biscuit food innovations to prevent anemia, by knowing the results of the organoleptic test, hedonic test, and nutritional content.
Methods: This is descriptive research. The stages of making biscuits include mixing mango seed flour and Moringa leaves. Processed biscuits are then tested for organoleptic, hedonic test, and nutritional content. There are 30 respondents on the hedonic test in this study.
Result: Organoleptic test results found F1 = round shape, strong green color of moringa leaves, savory and bitter taste (typical of moringa), and distinctive aroma of moringa; F2 = round shape, green color of Moringa leaves, savory and distinctive taste of Moringa, and distinctive aroma of biscuits; F3 = round shape, light green color of moringa leaves, savory taste and distinctive aroma of biscuits. The hedonic test results, namely 30 responses, showed F1 as many as 27 respondents (90%) did not like, formula 2 as many as 23 respondents (76.7%) liked, and formula 3 as many as 22 respondents (73.3%) liked.The nutritional content test of the biscuits was selected at F2 with the result that the water content was 4.1%; ash content 1.38% (b / b); protein content 18.1%; fat content 30.2%, and iron content 37.2 mg
Conclusion: The formula that meets the requirements for the organoleptic test, hedonic test, and nutritional content with proximate analysis is formula 2.

PROCESSED FOOD FOR ANEMIA PREVENTION FROM BISCUIT DIVERSIFICATION OF MANGO SEED FLOUR (Mangifera indica L.) AND MORINGA LEAVES POWDER (Moringa oleifera)

Rini Tri Hastuti; YoustianaDwi Rusita; Nur Rachmat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1026-1032

Background:Anemia is a health problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries, where an estimated 30% of the world's population suffers from anemia. The incidence of anemia in Central Java in 2013 reached 57.1%. Moringa leaves are rich in nutrients and are a source of beta carotene, vitamin C, iron, and potassium. The mango seed flour without going through the sulfurization stage contains 20.00% carbohydrates, 14.83% fat, and 4.84% protein. The manufacture of biscuits made of the main ingredients, namely Moringa leaf flour and mango seed flour, can be useful for preventing anemia.
Purpose:This study aims to produce alternative products and biscuit food innovations to prevent anemia, by knowing the results of the organoleptic test, hedonic test, and nutritional content.
Methods:This is descriptive research. The stages of making biscuits include mixing mango seed flour and Moringa leaves. Processed biscuits are then tested for organoleptic, hedonic test, and nutritional content. There are 30 respondents on the hedonic test in this study.
Result: Organoleptic test results found F1 = round shape, strong green color of moringa leaves, savory and bitter taste (typical of moringa), and distinctive aroma of moringa; F2 = round shape, green color of Moringa leaves, savory and distinctive taste of Moringa, and distinctive aroma of biscuits; F3 = round shape, light green color of moringa leaves, savory taste and distinctive aroma of biscuits.The hedonic test results, namely 30 responses, showed F1 as many as 27 respondents (90%) did not like, formula 2 as many as 23 respondents (76.7%) liked, and formula 3 as many as 22 respondents (73.3%) liked.The nutritional content test of the biscuits was selected at F2 with the result that the water content was 4.1%; ash content 1.38% (b / b); protein content 18.1%; fat content 30.2%, and iron content 37.2 mg
Conclusion:The formula that meets the requirements for the organoleptic test, hedonic test, and nutritional content with proximate analysis is formula 2.

IMPROVING THE TACTICS OF TREATING CHILDREN WITH SEVERE CEREBRAL PALSY

Zilola Mavlyanova; Gulnoza Burkhanova; Maftuna Ravshanova; Sardor Makhmudov; Sanzhar Kholboyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1623-1631

This article discusses severe forms of cerebral palsy in children of different ages
and the development of anemia in these children, and iron supplements are needed to treat
such children (III). The lack of data on this disease and the effect of ferric iron
preparations on the course and prognosis of infantile cerebral palsy served as the
relevance of the study.
The aim of the study. To evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ferric iron (Emfer)
preparations on the course and prognosis of infantile cerebral palsy.
Materials and research methods. To achieve this goal, the results of treatment of 67 sick
children with severe cerebral palsy were analyzed. Children age from 2 to 17 years old. All
patients were ranked by age groups in accordance with the age classification with the
GMFCS scale: up to 2 years old - 9 children (13.43%), 2-3 years old - 11 children (16.4%),
4-6 years old - 18 children (26.8%), 7-12 years old - 15 children (22.38%), 13-17 years old -
14 children (20.9%). The study group was divided into 3 subgroups of motor deficit
according to the GMFCS scale: level 3 - 16 children (23.88%), level 4 - 20 children
(29.85%), level 5 - 31 children (46.27%). All patients were divided into 2 groups - the main
group - 38 children (56.71%, age - 11.04 ± 6.3 years), for whom anemia was corrected
using the Emfer preparation based on ferric iron, and the comparison group - 29 children
(43.29%, age - 12.06 ± 5.1 years), who were treated without iron supplements.

Dates And Hemoglobin Levels: Literature Review

Dwi Ayu Rahmawati; Suryani As’ ad; A.Wardihan Sinrang; Ridni Husnah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2364-2370

Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to review studies on the effect of dates on increasing hemoglobin levels in anemia
Methods: the method used is an electronic database that has been published through the online libraries PubMed and Sciendirect. The keywords used for article searches are based on research questions. Result: a review of six health articles stated that dates are effective for increasing hemoglobin levels. Dosage, timing of administration, type of dates, food intake, a person's health condition should be of particular concern in giving date palm interventions. Not only increase hemoglobin levels, dates can also play a role in increasing ferritin, hematocrit, transferring saturation and serum iron levels in the majority of people.
Conclusion: dates can be used as an additional alternative to increase hemoglobin levels. However, disease or systemic syndrome in each person should be a concern because it can affect the effectiveness of dates in increasing hemoglobin levels.

Placental Morphometry In Post-Partum Mother With Anemia Running title : Placental Morphometry

Sri Rejeki; Septiana Arum Nur Aifa; Wulandari Meikawati; Sandeep Poddar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 110-115

Title of the Article: Placental Morphometry in Post-Partum Mother with Anemia
Context: Anemia in pregnancy affects the abnormality of the placenta, thereby causing a decrease in placental function. Babies born with an abnormal placenta carry a risk of developing arterial blockage, heart failure, hypertension, and cancer in the future.
Aims: Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation between anemia in the third trimester of pregnancy and placental morphometry.
Method: A total of 44 placentas from pregnant women with anemia and no anemia were selected by consecutive sampling techniques. The placentas were measured directly in weight, diameter, thickness, surface area, length of the umbilical cord, and the shape of the placenta. The measurement results were tested with Pearson correlation and Rank Spearman, while the placenta shape was tested by Chi-square.
Result: As many as 75% of pregnant women experience anemia in the third trimester, by most of the placenta has normal weight and thickness, the diameter and length of the umbilical cord are all normal, and the size is mostly oval. The weight of placenta (p = 0.000), thickness of the placenta (p = 0.023), surface area of the placenta (p = 0.000) and diameter of the placenta (p = 0.000) have a correlation with anemia in pregnant women. Umbilical cord length (p = 0.872) means that it has no correlation with anemia in pregnant women. All of them have a direction of the correlation (r) negative.
Statistical analysis used: The test is carried out at a significance level (α) of 95%. Placenta shape (p = 1.00) meaning that it has no correlation with anemia in pregnant women, OR = 0.939 (95%, CI = 0.861-1.024).
Conclusion: The condition of anemia in third-trimester pregnant women has correlation with the weight, thickness, surface area, and diameter of the placenta but has no correlation with the length of the umbilical cord and the shape of the placenta.

AFFECTIVE-RESPIRATORY PAROXYSMS IN CHILDREN: CLINICALNEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS

Ya.N. Madjidova; U.T. Babajanova; V.K. Abdullaeva; Sh.A. Shirmatov; Khalilova A.A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1673-1679

Introduction. Affective-respiratory paroxysm (ARP) or breath-holding spells is a
common phenomenon that occurs in children from 6 months to 6 years. Up to 90% of
children experience ARP for the first time before the age of 18 months. The mechanism of
the condition is still unclear. Scientists have found that children with breath-holding spells
are much more likely to be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia and, perhaps, it
contributes to the development of pathology. 20-35% of children have a burdened family
history. Some families have a dominant type of inheritance.
Materials and Methods. The algorithm for examining children included: general
clinical, neurological and psychological examination of children, conducting laboratory
research, registration of an electroencephalogram, according to indications, conducting an
echocardiographic study. We examined 50 children with ARP aged 6 months to 6 years.
Research was carried out in the clinic of the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute. The
diagnosis of ARP was established based on the history provided by mothers and
observations of seizures. Paroxysms were defined as stopping the baby's breathing at
exhalation after deep inhalation during crying. Paroxysms were classified as cyanotic,
pale, and mixed.
Results. A detailed study of the passage of the ante-, intra- and postnatal periods
made it possible to determine the significance of various unfavorable factors such as
anemia (p <0.05), toxicosis (p <0.01), acute respiratory infections (p <0.1), stress, use of
obstetric aids (p <0.05) and birth trauma. (p <0.1). In addition to perinatal risk factors, 13
(28%) children were found to have a hereditary predisposition to ARP and 4 children (8%)
to epilepsy. In most cases, seizures began at 6–12 months of age (38%). According to our
observations, the main provoking factors of seizures were: anger, inability to get what you
want - 70%, pain - 18%, fear - 12%. At clinical and neurological examination in children,
ARP of neurotic nature (82%) prevailed over affectively provoked syncope (10%) and
"epileptic" ARP (8%). The seizures in most cases were characterized by a typical course,
medium duration and high frequency. When assessing psychoemotional and behavioral
characteristics, children with ARP were more sensitive, intense, persistent, active, less
distracted, and differed in mood variability compared to healthy children. According to the
indicators of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system in children of the main
group, the initial autonomic tone was characterized by sympathicotonia, normal autonomic
reactivity was recorded significantly less than in the control group (p <0.05). According to
the results of laboratory studies, anemia (88%) and hypocalcemia (82%) were significantly
more common in children with ARP. Analysis of electroencephalographic data revealed:
signs of age norm - in 14 (28%) children, signs of dysfunction of nonspecific midline
structures of the brain - in 6 (12%) children, general cerebral changes. - in 3 (6%)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTITIS - AN INSTITUTION BASED STUDY

Subasree .Soundarajan; Sankari Malaippan; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1933-1942

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between haemoglobin level & severity of chronic periodontitis. This retrospective study was carried out by analysing the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020 at Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical sciences (SIMATS).Two forty four patients were included in the study. Parameters assessed were a)Demographic details – Patient name, Patient identity number, Age & Sex; b)Periodontal parameters – Probing pocket depth (PDD), Loss of attachment (LOA), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Severity of Periodontitis (mild, moderate & severe);c) Blood parameters - Haemoglobin levels (g/dl). Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate Pearson correlation of Haemoglobin with mean PPD, mean LOA & mean BOP score were calculated. Mean Hb was compared with severity of periodontitis using ANOVA. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 40.42 (±11.38). Females constituted about 58.06%, whereas males constituted 41.4% of the study sample. Majority of the population had severe periodontitis (64.76%), followed by mild periodontitis (18.03%) & moderate periodontitis (17.21%). The mean haemoglobin level in severe periodontitis (13.35g/dl) is higher when compared to moderate and mild periodontitis (13.30g/dl & 13.18g/dl respectively). Mean PPD was 5.24 mm, mean LOA was 4.6 mm & mean BOP score was 0.98. Association between mean CAL and mean haemoglobin levels was positive and statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. Mean Hb level was not significantly different with varying severity of periodontitis