Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Bladder cancer (BC)

Updated Bladder Cancer Imaging Techniques and Use of T2-Weighted Sequence High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance

Ayman Fathy Ahmed Amer, Engy Fathy Tantawy, Al Shaimaa Fathi Mohammed,Saber Moftah Abdulrrazaiq Albakoush

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4126-4136

Background:Bladder cancer (BC) is the sixth most common disease in men and the seventeenth
most common in women. Its incidence ranks first among malignant cancers of the urinary
system and second only to prostate cancer in Western countries. Bladder cancers and those in
the proximal urethra are commonly considered lower urinary tract tumors to distinguish them
from ureteral, renal pelvic, and calyceal urothelial tumors, which are collectively referred to as
upper urinary tract tumors. Imaging characteristics such as enhancement are helpful for
characterization. For staging, cystoscopy and biopsy are used for stages Ta–T3a disease,
confined to the bladder. Cross-sectional imaging is useful at stage T3b or later stages, after the
tumor has escaped beyond the bladder wall. The multiplanar capability of MRI allows image
acquisition in different planes to minimize partial volume averaging and optimize imaging when
evaluating the depth of bladder wall invasion. T2 Weighted Imaging (T2WI) provides
information on tumor depth and extravesical disease spread. On T2WI, urine has high SI, BC
has intermediate to high SI, and the normal detrusor muscle appears as a hypointense line.
Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) does not require gadolinium administration and provides
both qualitative and quantitative information that reflects changes at the cellular level
concerning tumor cellularity and cell membrane integrity