Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Anti Leukotriene

Assessment of Response to Anti Leukotriene Among Children with Bronchial Asthma

Naser Miftah Asmaydeh Al Shehibi; Khalid Mohamed Salah,Mohamed Mohamed Abdel Salam, Rania Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3000-3008

Background:Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of airways in which many cells and
cellular elements play a role in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, macrophages,
neutrophils and epithelial cells. Inflammation causes recurrent series of wheezing,
breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning.
These episodes are usually associated with widespread and variable airflow obstruction that is
often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment.The inflammatory process can lead to an
associated increase in bronchial hyper- responsiveness (BHR) to a variety of stimuli (e.g.,
allergens, respiratory viruses and some occupational exposures). Reversibility of airflow
limitation may be incomplete in some asthmatic patients.Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder,
with different mechanism of disease processes. Many clusters of demographics, clinical and
pathophysiological characteristics are often called "asthma phenotypes"The
antibronchoconstrictor efficacy of antileukotriene drugs provided the main impetus behind their
introduction as the first novel class of asthma therapy in more than 20 yr. However, clinical
trials also provided surprising evidence for a hitherto unsuspected role of cysteinyl-leukotrienes
in promoting persistent eosinophilia in the airway and blood of patients with asthma, and
possibly influencing pathways involved in airway wall remodeling. A better under

Options for Management Choice Evidence-Based Treatment of Cavus Foot Deformity

Akram Ali Attaib Beshna,Mohsen Mohamed Abdo Mar'éi,Mohamed Abdelazeez Mohamed Ghieth, Mohamed Nagy Elalfy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3095-3105

Background:Cavus foot encompasses a wide range of deformities, from a subtle flexible
deformity to severe rigid cavus foot. The prevalence of cavus foot is reported to be 10 to 25% of
the population or as common as flat foot. With increasing awareness of the milder or subtle
cavus, the whole disease entity may be more prevalent. The term “pes cavus” or “cavus foot” is
used to describe a wide spectrum of foot shapes that have an abnormal elevation of the medial
longitudinal arch. High arch of the foot is frequently associated with hindfoot varus, forefoot
adduction and plantar flexion, and ankle equinus. The etiology is most frequently attributed to
the neuromuscular disorders involving brain, spinal cord, or the peripheral nerves. Two thirds
of adults with symptomatic cavus foot have an underlying neurological condition. Among them,
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is most frequently
reported. The probability of a patient who has bilateral cavovarus feet being diagnosed with
CMT is 78%. The surgical procedures are combinations of bony reconstructions and soft tissue
procedures. As for the joint-sparing corrective osteotomies, calcaneal osteotomy, 1st metatarsal
base dorsiflexion osteotomy (1MTDFO), and midfoot dorsal closing wedge osteotomy at
cuneiform-navicular and cuboid level are considered. As for the soft tissue procedures, mainly
plantar fascia release, Achilles' tendon lengthening, and peroneus longus to brevis tenodesi s
are most frequent surgical procedures performed