Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Attitude

Health Awareness and Attitude Towards COVID-19 Pandemic Among University Students Under Healthcare Training in Al-Madinah

Roaa Y. Hassan, Karimah Alhussein Shararah, Shahad Abdullah Almuwallad, Shahad Khalid Alahmadi, Ghofran Abdullah Al-Harbi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2087-2092

The modern coronavirus infectious disease COVID-19 has been labeled internationally as a pandemic and is considered an emergency to the public health. Many studies were targeting university students as they play a great role after healthcare workers in relaying and spreading the awareness of COVID-19 and its preventive measures among colleagues, families, and friends. Therefore, it is of great importance to increase the knowledge and awareness about COVID-19.
Objectives: In this review article, we compare the most relevant studies that measure health awareness and attitude towards the COVID-19 pandemic.
Method: The articles are obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar that are published during 2020.
Conclusion: Most studies showed high level of awareness among university students, and social media was found to be their main source of information. Among all the selected research papers, we found that the studies conducted in both the United Arab Emirates and Qassim Universities showed results that may be comparable to our topic

A Questionnaire based comparative study to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of “adverse drug reaction reporting,” among 1stMBBS, 2ndMBBS and Post Graduate students in a medical college.

Sudhakar Kodudula, Sindu Punna, Sri Sangeetha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 759-768

Background and objectives:Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADR) is vital for pharmacovigilance. It is important to gain knowledge regarding adverse drug reaction in the undergraduate level. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of ADR reporting among medical students both undergraduate and Post Graduates. Materials & Methods:This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based study conducted among medical students in a teaching hospital, of south India. There was a total of 24 questions of which 10, 8 and 6 were related to Knowledge, Attitude and Practice respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 28 for descriptive and analytical statistics.

Knowledge and attitude of medical students and residents towards LGBT individuals

Dr. Madhu Vamsi G, Dr. S Rajendhar, Dr. R Rajashekar, Dr. D Geethanjali, Dr. K Siva Prasad, Dr. G Pranavi Reddy, Dr. M Nabanita, Dr. K Srinivas , Aditi Yadav Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2026-2033

It has been over two decades since the World Health Organisation has removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. However, evidence has shown that discrimination and negative encounters with healthcare workers affect frequency and type of healthcare sought by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) members. Attitudes of medical professionals towards LGBT community can influence their willingness to provide these persons with medical help. Studies have shown that Indian medical students have a negative attitude toward LGBT people as they have little knowledge about these people.
Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students and residents towards LGBT individuals.
Materials and Methods: Convenient and non-probable sample of 680 medical students and residents was taken in 4 months via Google Forms, who anonymously completed the survey. The “Survey on California State University, Northridge (CSUN) attitude towards LGBT” was the survey tool. Data was analysed using SPSS for descriptive and analytic calculations.
Results: Study was conducted among 680 medical students and residents. The majority percentage of students and residents disagree with the traditional gender roles without any significant gender differences. It was also found that as compared to females, more percentage of males are uncomfortable in interacting with LGBT people. The results show that the participants have better knowledge about LGBT people; however, the change from “neutral” and “agreement” to “disagreement” is not much significant. The students have a positive attitude toward the LGBT people.
Conclusion: This study concludes that there is adequate knowledge and positive attitude among medical students and residents towards LGBT individuals.


Muthumareeswari, Dr.S.Sumayaa, M Karpakavalli ,Shreen.S,Dr.V.N.Indulatha, Dr. L.V. Vigneswaran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3061-3075

 Food labeling is a topical issue and an important tool influencing consumer food choices. It could be an efficient tool to prevent consumer vulnerability to diet-related illnesses such as cancer, high blood pressure, hypertension and obesity, etc.This study seeks to examine the impact of Knowledge, Attitude and practice on food labeling among sports players and non-sports players in India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) in four cities of Tamil Nadu- Chennai, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Dindigul. Data were gathered using an online KAP Pretest questionnaire from hundred respondents which included 50 sports players and 50 non-sports players. An educational session was conducted for all the respondents and the impact of the intervention was analyzed through a posttest questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviorsof the respondents regarding food labels and Independent t- test was used to examine the significant relationship between pre and post test results among sports and non-sports players and the result 

Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and hpv vaccine among female medical personnel of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

Dr. Shubha Shankari Manjunath, Dr. Krishi Gowdra Revannasiddappa, Dr. Ujjwala Sai Guttapalli, Dr. Sunila Rani Guttapalli, Dr Jasmine

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 453-464

Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among Indian women, accounting for 6-29% of all cancers among Indian women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the disease-causing agent. Recent technological advancements have led to the development of a vaccination to prevent HPV infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and vaccination among female medical personnel at a tertiary teaching hospital.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among female medical personnel of a teaching hospital of a tertiary care. They were assured confidentiality and given a questionnaire regarding HPV infection and HPV vaccine.
Results: About 94.3% of participants identified HPV as the cause of cervical cancer, whereas 5.7% of participants were unaware of the association. About 72.1% were aware of the availability of the vaccination to prevent HPV infection, while 3.3% answered incorrectly and 24.6% were unaware. 31% of participants understood the correct age of vaccine initiation, 23% answered incorrectly, and 45.9% of participants did not know the answer. Only 4.1% of participants have had the HPV vaccination. 63.9 percent of participants did not agree to get vaccinated against HPV because they believed it would give them a false feeling of security, and 68.8 percent of participants were opposed to the systematic vaccination of the young Indian population against HPV because sexual exposure happens at a later age. 73% of participants cited a vaccination age of >25 years.
Conclusion: Insufficient medical personnel understanding leads to ignorance among public. Therefore, health personnel must be educated on the numerous components of HPV, cervical malignancies, and their prevention.

Assessment the Knowledge of primary healthcare workers practices, knowledge, diagnosed and attitude to reporting of communicable diseases at Makkah Al Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia 2022

Maram Taher Alghabbashi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4566-4585

In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of communicable illnesses is increasing, and requests for the treatment of a few of these diseases to be integrated into basic healthcare (PHC) have not abated. Clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) in PHC facilities in low-resource settings may provide cost-effective treatments for the prevention and control of communicable illnesses. Saudi Arabia is one of the world's biggest and most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings. In order to prepare and respond to risks from infectious diseases effectively, timely information management is ensured via the deployment of suitable surveillance systems. Identify, describe, and evaluate clinical trials of healthcare professionals' treatments for the management of both communicable and non-communicable illnesses that call for long-term care or treatment.Aim of the study: To evaluate the behaviors, knowledge, diagnosis, and reporting attitudes of primary healthcare providers in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia, in 2022 Methods: A Cross sectional community-based study was adopted, was conducted, in October -November 2022, among 200 healthcare workers in the primary healthcare in Makkah City, a written questionnaire was developed based on a literature review. The questionnaire tool consists of items that assess knowledge in primary healthcare workers practices, diagnosed and attitude to reporting of communicable diseasesResults:      reveals that the majority of participants (37.0%) were in the 30–49 age range, the majority of them were men (59.0%), and the majority of participants were married (59.0%). Specialty of the health care workers  the majority of participant are registered nurse/public health nurse were(33.0%) while medical doctor practitioner were(29.0%).

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Diabetes Mellitus among General Public of Bareilly region in Northern India: A Pilot Study

Neelanchal Trivedi, Piyush Mittal, Anurag Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7579-7599

The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing exponentially and expected to reach 783 million by the end of year 2045. The burden of complications of diabetes can be mitigated if the disease is diagnosed early and treated adequately. A cross-sectional pilot study from July 2021 to October 2021 on 52 participants from diverse areas of Bareilly (Northern India) was conducted. Only 38.46% of participants found to have good knowledge (knowledge score ≥ 19). Characters like ‘level of education’, ‘close relative with diabetes’, ‘income’ and ‘education in the medical field’ were having significant association with good knowledge score (p<0.05). Around 67.28% population showed positive attitude towards diabetes. Although ‘the education related to medical field’ and ‘level of education’ were found significantly associated with positive attitude (p < 0.05) and binary logistic regression showed both the variable as the predictor of positive attitude. The mean knowledge score of participants possessing positive practices in relation to ‘doing regular exercise’ was higher compared with who do not do regular exercise (p<0.001). Conclusively, the current study can be considered as a baseline for nationwide diabetes awareness programs to revamp the knowledge of population towards diabetes emphasizing the development of attitude & practices.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students in Belagavi- A cross-sectional study

Dr Hemavathe S, Dr Abhinandan Wali, Dr Sriram T R, Dr Aniketh Manoli, Dr Chandra Metgud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 222-230

Context/Background: COVID-19 is an emerging and rapidly evolving situation. Though several vaccines have been developed and brought into general use, vaccine hesitancy still exists among the public. Assessing the awareness toward COVID vaccine among medical students is important since their perception and practice will have a significant impact on their family members, friends and relatives.
Aims/Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Belagavi between May - June 2021. A total of 802 students participated in the study. A framed questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID vaccine was distributed to each participant.
Results: Most of the study participants were female (51%), and most of them were in the first year of their course at the time of the study (23.6%). Majority of them received COVID-19 related information from healthcare workers (72.7%). 92.8% and 92.6% of the participants responded that the vaccines control COVID-19 and it was by developing antibodies, respectively. 70.5% said that the vaccines should not be given to immunocompromised individuals. 82.2% of the participants have taken 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Almost all participants (98.8%) felt that even after vaccination other measures like social distancing, wearing mask and avoiding social gathering are to be followed.
Conclusions: The findings in the present study show good knowledge, positive attitude and practice towards COVID-19. It is necessary to keep on with further education and training strategies to get a better understanding and positive attitude toward the pandemic for all medical students.

Early Clinical Exposure, A New Teaching Learning Tool in Competency Based Medical Curriculum. Students Perception

Nalina T; Manojkumar B K; Chandraprabha S; Raghu G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 962-967

Background: ECE is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. Thus this study is an effort to explore the use of ECE as an effective teaching learning tool, toward better learning as vertical integrated method over traditional teaching method through student’s perception.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during April 2022. A convenience sample of 190 first- and secondyear MBBS students, enrolled in the medical curriculum, participated in an early clinical exposure program. To collect data from medical students, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and structured questions, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was used to know students’ attitudes toward early clinical exposure.
Results: Of the 190 medical students, 160 completed the questionnaire. The results demonstrated that medical students had a positive attitude toward early clinical exposure. Most students (84.1%) stated that early clinical exposure could familiarize them with the role of basic sciences knowledge in medicine and how to apply this knowledge in clinical settings. Moreover, 67.4 of them believed that early clinical exposure increased their interest in medicine and encouraged them to read more. Furthermore, content analysis of the students’ responses uncovered three main themes of early clinical exposure, were considered helpful to improve learning: “integration of theory and practice”, “interaction with others and professional development” and “desire and motivation for learning medicine”.
Conclusion: Majority of students felt that early clinical exposure is a very good teaching learning tool, The present design involving a introduction of variety of dimensions of medical profession like scientific, ethical, interpersonal, professional and social to the new entrants in addition to enhancing their motivation to learn. A well designed ECE program could be the ideal first step in the making of a holistic doctor.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward COVID-19 among the Population attending primary healthcare centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2022

Ahmed Khaled Shukri, Ismail Muhammad Sardar Ali Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4586-4604

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic, it has become a major challenging public health problem worldwide. This pandemic has affected all aspects of Population life in almost all nations and among all socioeconomic groups. Population of all types are facing an unprecedented crisis with the rapid spread of COVID-19 and severity of the disease in many infected individuals.  As such many healthcare systems have been overwhelmed and HCWs presented with work load . There is a potential shortage of physical resources, such as ventilators and intensive care unit beds, needed to care for surges of critically ill patients, however, additional medical supplies and beds will be of limited help unless there is an adequate medical workforce, as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to occur in small outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Aim of the study: To assessment the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward COVID-19 among the Population attending primary healthcare centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2022

Work-Life Balance Perceptions of Women in the IT and ITeS Sectors in Kerala: A Research Study

Geetha Manoharan, Sunitha Purushottam Ashtikar, Subhashini Durai, Franklin John Selvaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4764-4781

The business landscape has undergone significant change as a result of the globalisation and information technology industries' steady growth. In addition to changing the employer-employee relationship, it has transformed the way that business is approached and the expectations and attitudes of employees while they are at work. Due to the diverse workforce and demanding climate of today, the responsibility of running a successful and profitable business falls primarily on the management. In today's competitive and demanding workplace, maintaining a healthy work-life balance is almost a necessity. In order to achieve work-life balance, employees' personal and professional lives must be in a state of equilibrium. 140 female workers in the IT and ITES sectors were used as the sample to examine how women employees perceive work-life balance and how that affects job satisfaction. In the investigation, a quantitative approach was used. 200 respondents completed a structured questionnaire that was given out in order to collect data. This data was then analysed using the proper statistical software. The data is found to be quantitative in the quantitative technique and can be divided into three categories: inferential, experimental, and simulation. An inferentially constructed database could be used to infer the characteristics or relationships of the targeted population. Because some of the variables are changed to see how they affect the other variables, the experimental form has a feature that offers a lot of flexibility in the study environment. One of the most important aspects of the simulation aspect is creating a synthetic environment where useful data and information can be produced. The results of the study show that an effective work-life balance will increase employee job satisfaction, which will improve organisational performance and give IT enterprises a competitive advantage

Assessment of patient perception about generic and branded medicine

Dr Yogendra Bhati, Dr Pratibha Lavania, Dr Syed Azizur Rahman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 836-841

Background: Generic drugs have an important place in health care because they are less expensive and mimic the original drug in terms of the active ingredients, dose, dosage form, and bioequivalence.The present study was conducted to assess patient perception about generic vs. branded medicine.
Materials & Methods: 120 patients of both genders were provided with a questionnaire was designedwhich comprised of knowledge about difference between generic and branded medicines, attitude for buying generic medicines over branded medicines and practice of taking generic medicines.
Results: Out of 120 patients, males were 55 and females were 65.71% have heard about generic medicine, 65% knew that there is price difference between generic and branded medicine, 68% prefer buying generic medicines over branded medicines, 30% have ever asked their doctor to prescribe generic medicines, 32% have demanded chemist to give generic medicines in place of branded medicines, 64% knew there a difference in the quality of generic medicine and branded variant, 61% knew that there a difference in the price of generic and branded medicines, the type of medicines doctors prefer to prescribe was generic medicines in 26% and branded medicinesin 74%, the drug chemist prefer to sell was generic medicines in 22% and branded medicinesin 78%, generic medicines in 80% and branded medicines in 20% were prescribed in this hospital, Indian government promote generic medicines in 45% and branded medicines in 55%, 32% were aware of any government rules regarding generic or branded medicines. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude about generic medicines among participants were poor.


Abhishek Pathak, Ajay Pillai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 218-225

Aim: To evaluate the antibiotic knowledge, practise, and attitudes among Indian dentistry practitioners.
Material and methods: Dental professionals were the subjects of a descriptive cross-sectional research. The dentists were included in the sample because it was convenient for them to do so. Google forms were used to distribute the surveys to the participants, while those who couldn't be reached online were given paper copies of the survey. All forms were included in the research exclusively from dental professionals in India who gave their informed permission. Participants were guaranteed complete anonymity and data confidentiality.
Results:  A total of 100 dental practitioners participated in the research and completed the questionnaire, including 74 (74%) females and 26 (26%) men. Their average age was 27.58±3.69 years. More over half of the 52 participants (52%) said antibiotics helped them recover from colds and coughs. About 55 (55%) of participants believed that newer and more expensive antibiotics had no influence on effectiveness. Antibiotic resistance was known to around 91 percent of the population. Approximately 72 (72%) of participants disagreed that antibiotics were a safe treatment, while 75 (75%) disagreed that antibiotics were the first drug of choice in cough and sore throat. Antibiotic resistance was identified as an issue in India by the vast majority of participants (86%). Approximately 68 (68%) were opposed to maintaining antibiotic stockpiles at home. 55 (55%) of the 100 dentists polled prescribed antibiotics based on symptoms. Most dental practitioners administered antibiotics for intra and extraoral sinus drainage, severe facial edoema, dental trauma, pericoronitis, open extraction, and periapical abscess. Amoxicillin was the most popular medicine (69%) followed by Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25%) Almost every dentist has likely replied favourably to the request for a medical history.
Conclusion: Although dentists in the current research were found to have understanding of antibiotic prescription, it was found that there is an undeniable gap in training and perspective of dentists with respect to antibiotic recommendations. Therefore, dentists will need to improve their use of antibiotics by updating their procedures over time.

Knowledge, attitude and practices in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Latur city of Maharashtra

Deepak S. Telange, Pramod P Kulkarni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1864-1868

Introduction: The increase in severity of diabetes every year has been linked to patient’s lack of knowledge and practice of proper self-care. Due to its extreme importance, an annual assessment of patients' skills and knowledge has been recommended by The American Diabetes Association.
1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetic patients and to study the impact on glycemic control.
2. To educate the patients about the importance of lifestyle modification in the management of diabetes.
Methods: This study was conducted at the tertiary care level center in latur city of maharashtra. All the patients suffering from type 2 DM for more than one year attending the OPD and at IPD were included in the study irrespective of their age.
Results: On analyzing the data, it is found that only 7.14% participants had knowledge about the insulin deficiency as the cause of DM. only 37.30% of people knew that it is hereditary disease. Participants knowing that DM causes delayed wound healing were 58.73%. Only 50% participants follow the diet plan. Participants examining their feet daily were just 7.14% and only one patient was carrying the diabetic ID card.
Conclusion: The results of the study state that type 2 diabetes patients are deficient of sufficient knowledge on the understanding of causes of DM, risk factors of DM, progress of the disease, complications of DM, different signs and symptoms of complications for early identification, and basic rules of foot care. Practices of eating green leafy vegetables, exercise daily and checking blood sugar regularly are followed well but simple practice of feet examination daily is not followed.

Breast self- examination (BSE) awareness and attitude among female medical students-a cross sectional study

Latha Karem S., Sivakala T., Kavitha K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 935-945

Background: Context: Almost 50% of breast cancer cases and 58% of deaths occur in
less developed countries. Early detection plays a pivotal role in the treatment of breast
cancer. Better knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals influences the uptake
of screening methods for breast cancer in the community.Aims: -1.To estimate the
knowledge, attitude, and practices of BSE in female medical students, 2. To identify the
areas of gap in knowledge and attitude of BSE between students who perform and do
not perform BSE. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study
conducted among Undergraduate female medical students.
Methods and Material: The data was collected by self-administered closed ended
questionnaire through Google forms.Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was
performed using SPSS software 21 version.
Results: A total of 263 students participated in the study. 79.7% (208) of them had
heard about BSE. Analysis of practice aspect of data revealed that only 28.4% (74)
performed BSE sometime or the other. Those who had more negative attitude never
performed BSE.
Conclusions: Current study showed lack of knowledge, attitude and practice of BSE
among health professionals. Health professionals who don’t have strong attitude and
habit of practicing BSE will not be serious in percolating BSE in general population.
Therefore, there is strong need of intervention in health professionals in improving their
knowledge and attitude regarding BSE and making BSE a universal practice among
health professionals.

Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students- a research survey

Dr Izna, Dr. Mushtaq Ahmed Chowdhary, Dr Asim Naik, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari, Dr. Heena Dixit Tiwari, Dr. Priyanka Bhagat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5887-5891

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the knowledge, attitude and
practice of hand hygiene amongst undergraduate medical students studying in this
Methodology: A self- administered questionnaire based cross sectional study was done
amongst medical students at our institution. Based on their responses, a scoring system
was devised and their knowledge, attitude and practice were graded as good (>75%),
moderate (50-74%) and poor (<50%).
Results: Of the 140 participants were involved in the study, we found that majority had
moderate knowledge on hand hygiene. But the overall attitude of the respondents
towards hand hygiene was not satisfactory and only few showed good hand hygiene
Conclusion: This study reveals the wide gaps in the knowledge, attitude and practice of
hand hygiene among the medical students and hence the need for conducting regular

Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents regarding child health in field practice area of rural health training centre of govt. Medical college, aurangabad, maharashtra, india

Mahendrakumar M. Salve; Bharat B. Chavan; Razvi N.A.; Mohan K. Doibale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 959-963

Background: Father and mother as they are regarded as the primary care providers. Father has important role in
child health such as companion, care provider, protector moral guide, teacher, bread earner. Ultimately, the
family will be responsible for shaping a child and developing their values, skills, socialization, and security.
However, there is emerging evidence on the positive outcomes for child nutrition and development of expanding
father’s involvement beyond their traditional roles. Thus, this study explored the knowledge, attitude, and
practices of father’s and mother’s involvement in child care.
Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study was carried out among 400 under five children in field
practice area of rural health training center of Dept. of Community Medicine of Govt. Medical College,
Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India during the period of Jan. 2017 to Dec. 2018. Data was entered in MS Excel
2007 worksheet and analyzed using open Epi version 3.01.
Results: Majority 133(66.50%) of father in urban area think that the father role is important in child health care.
47(23.50%) of father of under five children residing in rural area think that the child health care is the
responsibility of mother only. However 40(20%) of father in rural area think that the father role is also important
in child health care. Father primarily see themselves as providers, not caretakers, a perception widely held by the
larger community as well.
Conclusion: Quite significant proportion of fathers had knowledge about child health and practices of taking
care of child was found but proportionately higher percentage of knowledge and practices were found in

The influence of the HIV/AIDS program on the knowledge and attitudes of the labourer in the building construction project of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Hasanuddin, Indonesia

Andi Alim; Dedi Maulana; Arlin Adam; Moh. Husni Thamrin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 999-1010

This study attempts to analyze the differences of knowledge and attitudes of construction labours of Engineering Faculty Unhas, Gowa with methods of communicating information and education as well as the screening. In response to the prevention of HIV/AIDS at work. This study using the method was an experiment quasi pre and post-test design with the application of two group pre and post. With different treatment given a few and observed every treatment. This study found that there is the influence of intervention with the IEC media methods before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitude labourers of HIV/AIDS, and some the influence of intervention with the method the screening before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitudes labourers about HIV/AIDS. Based on our research findings, there need to be continuous interventions to increase knowledge, much efforts to prevent sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS and check periodically of HIV/AIDS.

Stem cell management is truly a primary bio-insurance for the well-being of babies- A study on Indian pregnant women

Swati Chaudhary, Dr. Supriti Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3403-3418

Background: In recent years, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been shown
in developed countries to have an increasingly important impact on their health status
worldwide. The NCDs are the world's leading cause of death and a significant threat
to public health in developing countries. Almost 71 per cent of deaths worldwide are
individually responsible for non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular
diseases, stroke, cancer, diabetes and chronic condition. Almost three-fourths patients
with non-communicable diseases have died before the age of 70 and 82% of 16 million
prematurely deaths are in small and average countries are due to NCDs as per the
WHO report 2018. India is undergoing rapid transitions with increase in Noncommunicable
diseases (NCDs), that are resulting into significant rise in morbidity
and mortality in Urban and rural populations.47% of the patients in India are bearing
the treatment cost (Out of Pocket) themselves. Stem cell therapy is becoming the
crucial line of treatment for these diseases. In fact, from last two decades, Stem cells
derived from cord blood were used for treatment of blood disorders, immune systems
and metabolic diseases as an alternative to bone marrow transplants. In 2016, Noncommunicable
diseases (NCDs) control initiative was implemented by the Indian
government to educate about the use of stem cells to treat non-communicable diseases.
Doctors and biotech companies are helping to educate pregnant women to encourage
the use of stem cells so they can decide to store their child's cord blood as needed for
future use. Henceforth, this paper aims for understanding the attitude of Indian
pregnant women for the storage and usage of stem cell that would be a critical bioinsurance
for baby’s well –being

Attitude towards Teaching Profession of Graduate Levels Students in the State of West Bengal, India

Ranajit Dhara; Arup Barik; Dr. Amarnath Das; Dr. Nandini Banerjee

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 83-98

In the present study, the investigators have tried to study what kind of Attitude of Graduate Students towards Teaching Profession and to find out the Graduate Level Students concerning their level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession on the basics of Category. The investigators have applied the Descriptive Survey type method for the present study. The investigators used self-made questionnaires on Attitude towards Teaching Profession. The overall results of the study explored that the level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession is being Moderate in West Bengal, India and Female Students was comparatively more favorable attitude than the Male Graduate Students towards Teaching Profession as well as Urban Graduate Students is comparatively more positive attitude towards Teaching Profession. It is indicated that there is a no significant difference among the Graduate Level Students with respect to their level of Attitude towards Teaching Profession on the basis of Category, Streams.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices about Biomedical Waste Management among Nursing Professionals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha.

Kulumina Dash; Minati Das; N.K. Satapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1127-1142

Biomedical waste (BMW) management is an issue of major concern of all healthcare providers and healthcare establishments as the waste produced during the course of healthcare activities carries potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of present concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The bio-medical wastes generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Many studies across the country have shown that there are still deficiencies in the Knowledge, attitude and practices of the health care professionals in the organizations. Hence, A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management among nursing professionals in a tertiary care hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha. With due consideration to nursing personnel’s availability, accessibility, feasibility, and resources, we decided to include (n=100) of them in our study. The number of nursing personnel was selected by simple random sampling in their respective department/specialty. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, practices and attitude of the nursing personnel regarding biomedical waste management. Overall, the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards biomedical waste management among the nursing professionals were satisfactory. Complete hepatitis B vaccine coverage among nurses (100%) in our study is attributed to hospital policy of free immunization to high risk groups. Such policy decisions do have a positive impact on work efficiency of nurses by creating a sense of being protected.

Assessment of knowledge and attitude among pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after COVID-19 crisis.

Dr. Rajesh Ijalkar; Dr. Ritesh Kalaskar; Dr. Shruti Balasubramanian; Dr. Ashita Kalaskar; Dr. Priyanka Bhaje; Dr. Priyanka Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8368-8378

Background: In this time of COVID-19 crisis, need of hour to appropriately perform dental
procedures to reduce the spread of this deadly disease, it is importance to assess the knowledge
and attitude of pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after
COVID-19 crisis.
Methods and Materials: Questionnaire-based survey composed of 6 questions that assess the
knowledge of pediatric dentists regarding COVID-19 infection and 10 questions each designed
to gather information about their clinical practice before and after COVID-19 crisis which
shows attitude of pediatric dentists. Online survey link was circulated through social media
and an e-mail to pediatric dentists from different locations in India and the responses were
collected. 346 pediatric dentists willingly responded in the study.

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.


Mohammed Abdul Mateen Dr. Muhammad Shehbaz Mohammad Asifuddin Mohammed Asrar ali khan Dr.Manognya podila Dr. Shiva Damaracherla Dr. Uma challa Konka saha Habeeba Musharraf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9623-9633

Introduction: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was recognized and has caused serious illness and numerous deaths. The ultimate scope and effect of this outbreak are unclear at present as the situation is rapidly evolving. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with main clinical symptoms such as a dry cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty in breathing.
Objective:  To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of medical students towards corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Materials and Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in India from September 2020 to February 2021. Participants were recruited using a snowball sampling technique and all data were collected via an online self-reported questionnaire using Google Forms ( as the data collection period coincided with implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown policy in India. Socio-demographics characteristics, social interaction history, information-seeking behavior, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. A p-value of <0.04 indicated statistical significance.
Results: A total of 2000 eligible participants completed the survey, 71.5% of whom were female, and their mean age was 19.4 years old (SD = 2.1). Almost all had sufficient knowledge (87.1%) and good preventive practice (93.6%) towards COVID-19; however, there was also a rather low level of positive attitude recorded, at 65.7%. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the female participants, and the receiving of information from the official websites, reported a significantly higher level of good practice. Besides, students who had a high level of sufficient knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19 were more likely to have good preventive practices (All p<0.001).
Conclusion: Many undergraduate medical students in India had positive attitude and practice against COVID-19, yet only a few had adequate knowledge. This warrants further interventions to keep them updated with COVID-19 evidence to maximize their potentials in raising public awareness on COVID-19.

Oral Rehydration Therapy: Mothers Knowledge And Attitude

Mohammed khawwam Abdul Wahid; Sura Khutan Mohammed; Ahmed Abdul Abbas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4349-4357

Over the last several decades, there has been some decline in mortality rate in association with diarrhea and this has been attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS), better supplemental feeding, improvement in hygiene and sanitation and mother education; however, the use of ORS is greatly affected by mothers knowledge and attitude toward using it in treating their children with diarrheal disease. This study was aimed to figuring out maternal knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to ORT use in diarrheal illness and the main maternal characteristics that can predict such attitude and practice.The current study was designed to be a cross sectional study enrolling 400 mothers of children aged between 2-59 m. with history of diarrheal disease. Those mothers were asked to fill a questionnaire form regarding residency, level of education, parity, occupation,did they use ORS for their children or not during diarrheal disease. Mothers who did not use the ORS were asked about the reasons for such behavior. Mothers who used the ORS were asked about their source of knowledge about ORS,the way of preparation of ORS,the type of ORS, the frequency of administration, the method of administration and their beliefs regarding the benefit of ORS. The results of current study revealed that out of 400 mothers including in this study 232 (58%) used ORS to treat there children during diarrheal disease.There was no significant association between use of ORS and residence, level of education, parity and occupation (P > 0.05). Mothers who used ORS had good knowledge about the advantages and the way of preparation and use of ORS and their main source of knowledge was primary health care centers. Mothers who did not use ORS admitted to have no idea about its advantages because no one has told them about these advantages. a significant proportion of mothers in our community lack necessary knowledge about the advantages of ORS in treating diarrheal disease in children and that there is urgent need to adopt health campaign to raise the awareness of women in our society regarding this common health issue.

The Description Of Pre-Clinical Students’ Knowledge And Attitudes About The Dangers Of Smoking Against Lung Cancer

Moskwadina Gultom; B.R.Hertaty Siahaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4771-4782

This study discusses the description of pre-clinical students’ knowledge and attitudes about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer. It was done at Medical Faculty of Universitas Kristen Indonesia (UKI). It was a quantitative study with survey design. The respondents of this study were 83 students who were chosen using quota sampling. The instrument of this study were two sets of questionnaires with closed-ended questions. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that: a) of 83 respondents, 71 (85.5%) of respondents knew that smoking was harmful to health, the remaining 12 (14.5%) of respondents did not know that smoking was harmful to health. It can be concluded that most of the Pre-clinical Students Class 2016-2018 at the Medical Faculty of UKI have good knowledge about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer.


Aminuddin Prahatama Putra; Edyson .; Ika Kusuma Wardani; Huldani .; Fauziah .; Julia Kasab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1118-1125

Background: Terminal disease causes pain that is unbearable by the patient. Euthanasia is an act of someone ending his life in order to relieve the pain he is suffering. Euthanasia is still prohibited in Indonesia. Education on ethical and basic knowledge between junior high schools located on the banks of the Martapura river may have differences due to local traditions regarding euthanasia, therefore research is needed to see differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia among SMPN 1 Astambul and SMPN 1 Karang Intan students. Methods: The research design used analytic observational with cross sectional method. The sample consisted of 100 students, the data were analyzed using the chi-square test with a 95% degree of confidence. Result: The results showed that the level of students' knowledge about euthanasia was still lacking, the majority of attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia were negative. Conclusion: There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, perception regarding euthanasia based on their origin school. There were a significant differences in knowledge and attitudes based on parental education and occupation.

An insight among students of health sciences towards HIV/AIDS: A cross sectional study in coastal Karnataka

Ankitha Prem; Mahima Mishra; Suhan .; Smitha Nayak; Suman VB; Anupama N; Priyanka Arun Shirali; Rashmi Kaup Shiva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 26-37

The objective of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among Interns of a Dental and Medical College. The data is collected through structured questionnaire by cross sectional study method with the sample size of 246. The model is tested on a context of Interns of dental and medical students for the first time. The present study has used a reflective measurement model. Due to the model complexity, the use of Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling approach is found to be appropriate for the purpose of analysis of constructs and their corresponding data. The structural model has proved that the path coefficient value and empirical t values of exogenous latent variables on endogenous latent variable are above that threshold value in relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust except attitude and trust. The testing of hypothesis confirms the strong relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust. Based on the results of Importance Performance Matrix Analysis results corporate need focus on changing the perception of interns primarily. Hence,medical college must aim at increasing the performance of the target construct trust so their first priority should be to improve the performance aspects captured by the construct perception performance by improving its total effects as this construct has high chance to improve its total effect which in turn improves its performance.

Factors Promoting Usage Of Social Media:An Exploratory Study Of Secondary Schools Headteachers Of Malawi

Collins Chibvala Phiri Z.M; Sonia Sharma; Dr. Pavitar Parkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3267-3272

In the modern world for heads of institutions to effectively and efficiently progress in their daily duties, they need to active in the way they use the social media as well well as being semiconscious in the way they use the social media. This descriptive research was conducted to explore factors and challenges promoting and affecting use of social media by Headteachers and their level of enjoyment in usage of social media in schools of Malawi. In this survey, qualitative and quantitative study methods were used to collect relevant and detailed data. Simple random sampling was used to select 61 headteachers. A self-constructed questionnaire, 5 point Likert scale and interview questions were used to study the attitude of headteachers towards usage of social media in secondary schools. Mean differences, standard deviations and t-test are used for data analysis. The results concluded that principals have positive attitude towards use of technology in schools. Findings revealed that; need to search for new information and resources, conforming to the global village, availability of ICT equipment and need for easy communication are some of the factors promoting principals need use of technology in schools; interrupted power supply/ failure, lack of expertise-knowledge and skills including lack of equipment are some of the challenges faced in secondary schools when integrating technology and that headteachers enjoy using technology in schools. 98.36% of principals enjoy using technology which is significantly very high.


Muminova A. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 671-676

The verbal occurrence of rank and title names in the Uzbek language from a socio-linguistic point of view, that is, in relation to the personality of the speaker and the listener is analyzed in this article. The research of career and title names used in the lexicon of a historical work in terms of the attitude, speech conditions and speech situation of the applicant and the recipient disposes to reflect the cultural reality and cultural identity of that period.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.


Moulishree .; Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2155-2172

Social networks are seen as a group of internet based technology. It provides a platform to share contents, interest and develop new skills and personalities in the virtual world . The definition for this depends from person to person. There are no boundaries to the use of social networks. The aim of the study is to determine the attitude towards social networks among different age groups. A well structured questionnaire enclosed with closed ended questions was prepared which was surveyed among 100 active participants . The data collected is analysed in SPSS software version 22 by descriptive analysis. The questionnaire is administered to the participants to online google forms link.There exists a positive attitude towards social networks among all age groups. Awareness on advantages and disadvantages of the social networks should be inculcated in the minds of the younger generation.

Assessment Of Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Based Survey On The Incidence Of Pulp Stones In Maxillary Molars Among Endodontists And General Practitioners - A Questionnaire Based Survey

AarthiMuthukumar .; Dr. AdimulapuHima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2997-3015

AimThe aim is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on the incidence of pulp stones in maxillary molars among endodontists and general practitioners.IntroductionPulp stones are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp tissue or embedded into dentin. Based on their radiographic features, they can be classified into true and false which are located more often in the coronal region of the tooth. True pulp stones are made up of dentine and lined by odontoblasts, whereas the false pulp stones are formed from degenerating cells of the pulp that get mineralized. Materials and MethodsThe sample size is 102 people and a random sampling method is used to minimise bias. Internal validity was a pre tested questionnaire and external experiment and cross verification with existing studies was performed. Data analysis was done in SPSS and Statistical test used is chi square test and dependent variables are demographic data such as gender and experience and independent variables are pulp stones incidence and knowledge.ResultsFrom this survey it was found that 70% were aware about the types of pulp stone, 62% were able to diagnose pulp stones radiographically and 60% encountered pulp stones rarely in maxillary molars.Conclusion
Within the limitations of the study , the prevailing knowledge in regard to the prevalence of pulp stones among endodontists was high when compared to the general practitioners. More awareness can be created among general practitioners about pulp stones. Furthermore, the existing Attitude and practice among respondents was high among endodontists and general practitioners when compared to knowledge.

Knowledge And Awareness On Mental Health Of Students During Quarantine Period

Kaviyaselvi Gurumurthy; V. Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2644-2664

Coronavirus, a deadly virus caused an unimaginable pandemic across the globe and in order to limit its spread the lockdown and quarantine initiative was introduced. The mental health of students generally refers to the complete mental well-being and the absence of any mental disorders. This pandemic caused a major fluctuation in mental attitudes and anxiety levels of students. The main aim of this study was to analyze the attitude of students in relation to the quarantine and the mental health of students during the lockdown period. A self administered questionnaire was prepared and circulated. The results were obtained and statistically analysed using SPSS software with a version of 22 and the statistical test used was descriptive statistics. It was found that the majority of students had no change in relationship between friends and family and were able to counteract boredom and laugh every single day of the quarantine. The study concluded that the quarantine period had an effect on attitude and anger levels of students. Teenagers were physically and psychologically affected by the quarantine due to lack of socialization and however proved to be addicted to social media which had a deteriorating rating impact on the quality of life.


Fahad Abdulrasheed Alafghani, Mohammad Qaseem Alturkostani, Ramez Saad Allehyani, Jaber Essa Alhaij, Basel Hussain ALrefaei, Bashaer Bashah Alnadwi, Amer Saeed alnadwi, Abdulrahman Hassan Alghamdi, Ebtesam abd almohsen fahad, Nehal Abdulrahman Koshak

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 228-238

       The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) annually hosts more than three million Muslim pilgrims from around 184 countries during the Hajj pilgrimage. Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a major public health challenge during the Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah. It is necessary to take health precautions among these pilgrims the uptake of health preventive measures among Hajj pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, bacteremia, otitis media, and bacterial meningitis, in addition to a significant cause of sinusitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Complications of each of these diagnoses are common. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and intensive care unit among pilgrims in Saudi hospitals during Hajj. During the 1986 Hajj season, pneumonia was the second most common cause of hospitalization with the highest case fatality ratio among those aged over 50 years, therefore pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. Clinical symptoms, signs and physical examination findings alone cannot differentiate pneumonia disease from infections caused by other pathogens,to our knowledge there is no study that has explored the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to pneumococcal infection and vaccination among all Hajj pilgrims in KSA.
Aim of the study:To assessment of awareness and Attitude toward Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection and vaccination among Hajj and Umrah Pilgrims from Makkah in 2018
.Methods:Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among pilgrims who resident in Makkah city during May 25, 2018 to 24 October 2018  Hajj 2018,  Our total Sample size of pilgrims participants were (500)
Results: the majority of participants (67.0%) have a weak knowledge while Range (1-21) Mean± SD (8.155±3.011). While more than half of them (61.0%) have a positive attitude about the disease, while Range (0-8) Mean± SD (3.944±1.098
)Conclusion:Before Hajj doctors must teach and inform all the participants about how to deal with any infectious disease, particularly pneumonia.Significant opportunities for improving Knowledge and awareness among Hajj pilgrims about the importance of using preventive health measures. Moreover, emphasizes the need for better communication between official health authorities in Saudi Arabia and all Hajj pilgrims regarding Hajj health information.


Eman Meshal Saad Alotibi, Shaker Musleh Alhuthali, Rayan Fawzi Abdrabalrasol Jelani, Ayman Ghazi Hameed Almehmadi, Saleh Ahmad Naseef, Wadie Kamel Hassan Munshi Aziza Abdulah Almarzouki, Ashwaq A. Qawas, Murad Munawuier Alsaedi, Khalid Mohammed Saad Alzahrani, Majid Saeed D Alsaaidi, Hassan Ali Altherwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 523-532

Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills Research experience is invaluable to the physician's evidence-based practice as it imparts skills such as literature search, collecting, and analyzing data and critical appraisal of evidence.Training for research skills and experience of research early in career has been associated with continued professional academic work and may help inform residents' career decisions. The medical education system in India does not incorporate research methodology as a part of the curriculum. It is seen that research programs in medical colleges get the lowest priority. There are a numbers of reasons, including lack of funding and manpower resources, responsible for the poor quality in research-oriented medical education. Research is a systematic process to achieve new knowledge, science or invention by the use standard methods. Health research has an impact on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and especially on health care programs policy.
Aim of the study:To assessment of the Knowledge toward medical research among health care worker in the primary health care at Makkah 2019.
Method:This is a cross sectional studyconducted at primary health care at Makkahbetween August 2019 and October 2019 was carried out on sample size (190) would be. In order to account for non-response and achieve more generalizable results, the investigator will increase the sample size up to (200) . sampling technique has be used then simple random.
Results:majority of our study weak Knowledge were constitutes (42.0%). While the average of Knowledge were constitutes (39.0%) but high were constitutes (19.0%) and the Range is (1-10) while Mean ±SD (5.113±2.011). Also a significant correlation between Knowledge toward medical research were P-value<0.001
Conclusion:In the present study, it had been found that postgraduate physicians in the primary health care had unsatisfying knowledge of health research. they'd positive attitude towards research, however they didn't remodel their data , but they failed to transform their knowledge  due to lack of time and lack of research curriculum. There is need to encourage postgraduate students to carry out research through provision of technical assistance and essential infrastructure during their postgraduate training program.