Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : pandemic


Dr.S.Suganthi , Dr.Aarthy.A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 789-798

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the lifestyle of all people. This study was conducted to study the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on the quality of life among the general population in the rural area of Chengalpattu district, Tamil Nadu.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Community based Cross-sectional study done after the second wave of COVID 19 pandemic in India, included 424 participants from the rural health training center’s field practicing area of a tertiary care private hospital in Chgengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu. After obtaining informed consent, data were collected through house to house survey using the WHO-BREF questionnaire which assessed the quality of life including physical health, Mental health, Social relationship and Environmental domains. Along with it, socio-demographic details of the participants were also obtained. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21.
RESULTS: The Quality of life of the people is better with 52.4% of participant’s scores falling above the mean score of 253.59(+/- 57.81). 59.2% of the participants showed better physical health with a mean score above 68.21(+/- 21.7). 51.9% and 54.0 % of the participants had good mental health and social relationship respectively. 52.6% of the participants enjoyed a good physical environment during the pandemic with a mean score of 65.56(+/-16.9). There is a strong association between quality of life and socio-demographic factors like age (p = 0.00); Gender (p = 0.003); Marital status (p = 0.024); Education (p = 0.000 ); Socio-economic status during the pandemic (p = 0.000) and Occupation (p = 0.000 ), which was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: Despite the pandemic 52.4% of the participants had a better quality of life. This may be due to subsidies and free rations from the government to the people. Also, people in the productive age group with better education and occupation had a good quality of life. This implies that, the government’s plan should focus on  better education to the children and improvement of employment opportunities


Dr. Koduri Nityasree, Dr. Nilesh Mahadeo Naphade, Dr. Asmita Jagtap, Dr. Jyoti Vittaldas Shetty, Dr. Manjiri Chaitanya Datar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1256-1265

Covid-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the population's psychological and social well-being. This study was initiated to ascertain the psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 recovery such as depression, anxiety, and bereavement, as well as to assist in ascertaining the psychosocial repercussions of the pandemic. Long periods of isolation can be costly on the economy, hence impact of the disease on quality of life in people who have recovered from Covid-19 was assessed.
Methods and Material:Across-sectional study conducted on patients who have recovered from Covid 19 and were visiting a tertiary health care center. Patients consenting for study were interviewed based on the ICD-10 criteria for depression and anxiety. DASS and WHO-QOL questionnaires were used to measure the severity of depressive, anxiety symptoms and quality of life. The data was analysed using SPSS (statistical packages for social sciences) version 20.0 software.
Results: Female population was 36% and male population was 64%. Oxygen support was required by 83% of the subjects. In the participants the severity of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded. There was total 48, 45 and 38 patients who reported to have depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. ICU admission was required by 40% of them. The association of oxygen support, with depression and stress was significant, with higher number of patients requiring oxygen support. While there was no association of anxiety and oxygen support.
Conclusions: Pandemic has had significant psychological sequalae on the participants, not only while they were infected but also chronically in terms of their quality of life.

Health Awareness and Attitude Towards COVID-19 Pandemic Among University Students Under Healthcare Training in Al-Madinah

Roaa Y. Hassan, Karimah Alhussein Shararah, Shahad Abdullah Almuwallad, Shahad Khalid Alahmadi, Ghofran Abdullah Al-Harbi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2087-2092

The modern coronavirus infectious disease COVID-19 has been labeled internationally as a pandemic and is considered an emergency to the public health. Many studies were targeting university students as they play a great role after healthcare workers in relaying and spreading the awareness of COVID-19 and its preventive measures among colleagues, families, and friends. Therefore, it is of great importance to increase the knowledge and awareness about COVID-19.
Objectives: In this review article, we compare the most relevant studies that measure health awareness and attitude towards the COVID-19 pandemic.
Method: The articles are obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar that are published during 2020.
Conclusion: Most studies showed high level of awareness among university students, and social media was found to be their main source of information. Among all the selected research papers, we found that the studies conducted in both the United Arab Emirates and Qassim Universities showed results that may be comparable to our topic

Analyzing The Factors Affecting Media Consumer Trends During The COVID-19 Period - The Rise Of Web Series By Different Otts V/S Traditional TV Serials In India.

Sanjana Pratap,Mitali Jain,Shyam Kumar Singh,Shinki K. Pandey .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 989-1004

In the recent decade OTT platforms, also known as "Over the top," have seen a tremendous rise in the number of consumers and also gained a huge market share in the entertainment industry. The OTT service most users probably interact with regularly is video OTT. Services like Netflix and Disney+ Hotstar are video OTT services that provide users with a number of programming options, both in terms of a licensed library of TV shows and films and original programming. The study's objective is to carry out a detailed study of OTT (over-the-top) platforms, and how and why OTT platforms are rising in India. This study also investigates OTT platforms at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that recent years have witnessed several films emerging as pan-India hits, and the rise of alternative platforms has only widened the opportunities for actors and filmmakers. This study concludes that there is no competition between theatres and digital platforms filmmakers must up their game. OTT has resulted in more opportunities and redefined viewership patterns. Films and other mediums will thrive together because the same actors and makers are exploring different platforms.


Dr Satvik Dhirawani, Dr Sanjay M Khaladkar, Dr Sai Sabari Vinay Kumar Parripati, Dr Tejvir Singh, Dr Eshan Durgi, Dr Neeha Jhala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2899-2915

To study the High Resolution Computed Tomography manifestations in the evaluation of COVID-19 suspected and diagnosed patients and study its correlation in respect to CT severity scoring with symptomology, comorbidities, lab parameters and oxygen requirement in the study group.
Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted between August 2020 to October 2022 at Dr D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune after taking necessary approval by the institutional scientific and ethics committee. 500 patients meeting the inclusion criteria for the study were included in the study after taking a written informed consent from all the patients.
Results: A total of 500 study participants were included; of them 27% (n=133) were categorized as mild on the basis of CT severity score, 51% (n=257) were categorized as moderate and 78 participants (15.6%) were categorized as severe. Thirty two (6.4%) patients who were suspected for having COVID-19 infection and being diagnosed as COVID- 19 positive on RTPCR tests showed normal HRCT scans. Our study group included 311 male and 189 female patients.  Ground glass opacities were the. Most common typical CT chest manifestation in our study group seen in all of severe patients followed by 97.3% in moderate groups, 94.7% in mild group. Consolidation was seen in 55.1% of severe patients followed by 31.9% in moderate disease groups, 15.8% in mild group. Bilateral involvement of lung parenchyma on HRCT was more common and was seen to affect 84.8% (n=429) of total population there was a lower lobe preponderance in early and mild disease with the right lower lobe being the most common lobe being affected followed by the left lower lobe. In our study group, atypical findings of COVID 19 disease on HRCT were seen in 24 % (n=120) of total population. In our study groups, among the atypical findings pleural effusion is the most common atypical finding which was seen in 10.2% (n=51) of total study population followed by mediastinal lymphadenopathy which was seen in 9.2% (n=46) of total study population.  The mean number of days since symptoms was highest for patients in severe disease category (7.3 days) followed by moderate group (5.3 days) and mild group (3.0 days).  In our study oxygenation support was required for 64.1% of patients in severe group followed by 39.3% in moderate group and 6.8% in mild group.
Conclusions: COVID 19 disease has had a significant negative impact on the healthcare system all across the world and CT imaging plays an important role in assessing disease severity and progression. Our study supports the use of HRCT in patients with COVID-19 infection, which could be used as a rapid and an effective gatekeeper to rule-out patients with a low likelihood of disease

Role Of Common Laboratory Markers In Estimating The Duration Of Hospital Stay In COVID-19 Patients

1Dr. Mandeep Cheema, 2Kiran Kumar Singal, 3Dr. Ria Krishna, 4Dr. Disha Gehlot .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3155-3161

Background: COVID-19 pandemic hit the world in 2019 and its successive waves have created high alerts periodically across many nations including India. At the time of successive waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the key concerns among developing nations was to manage the patient burden in hospitals with limited available infrastructure.
Objective: In the present study we have analysed the role of common laboratory markers as a predictor of hospital stay in COVID-19-positive patients so that hospital resources can be managed efficiently.
Methods: We studied the data of 200 COVID-19-positive patients for TLC, LDH, D-dimer, and serum ferritin and analysed their correlation with hospital stay
Results: TLC and LDH exhibit a positive correlation with hospital stay whereas D-dimer and serum ferritin showed a negative correlation with hospital stay among COVID-19 patients. Patients with a negative CRP showed a longer duration of hospital stay with a median stay of 9 days.
Conclusion: Being a developing nation, healthcare centres in India have limited resources. In such a scenario, common laboratory markers can prove to be a promising tool in managing hospital resources by estimating the hospital stay of patients.

A survey on problems faced by physically challenged people during the corona pandemic

S. Bhavesh; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 540-549

INTRODUCTION: The Covid- 19 pandemic has caused many drastic changes in the lines of the general population. Moreover, the people with physical disabilities were affected more, as they commonly encounter day to day life challenges in their life, such as barriers to mobility, reduced access to healthcare services, and high depression.
AIM: The study aims to create awareness and survey the problems faced by the physically disabled people during the Covid- 19 pandemic.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted survey through online mode with the help of google forms through an e-questionnaire.The survey was conducted among the general population with a second of 101 responses. The obtained results were statistically analysed using SPSS software version 23.
RESULTS: Most of the general population have an awareness of the problems faced by the physically challenged people during the corona pandemic. Most of the population found this survey was useful.
CONCLUSION: Because of the lack of access to hospitals, drastic changes in lifestyle and social  habits, no physical activity were all noted. From the present study, it is evident that most of the people are aware of the various problems faced by physically challenged people during COVID.


Shruti Singh, Saroj Kumari, Aswathy Sreekumar, Ananthu SS, Jasmine Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1739-1745

The goal of the paper is to assess early economics impact of Covid-19 on the aviation industry as it is one of the hardest hit industries. Covid-19 has an unprecedented impact on the international passenger seat capacity and gross passenger operating revenues of airlines. In the first part, we look at the impact of the pandemic on the economy as a whole and subsequently look at the economic cost of airlines. Two main elements are driving this negative trend – travel restrictions and overall economic development. We are currently experiencing the tightest international travel restrictions in the modern era of flight transportation with the economies worldwide experiencing a greater decline in GDP than during the last 3 recessions. In the second part, we look at two out of many possible path scenarios which are likely to drive the trend: V-shaped path and U-shaped path. All pandemic outbreaks before followed V-shaped scenario but Covid-19 has paralyzed the society for longer with stricter governmental measures and so U-shaped scenario has to be taken into account as the most likely outcome for the aviation industry during this pandemic.


Mr. Suresh Kashinath Ghatge; Prof. (Dr.) Anuradha Parasar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1745-1762

Background – There has been a significant impact of COVID-19 on the global economy and public health. Various countries have made unmatched efforts and awareness to ensure containment of this deadly virus. In order to make it possible, several routine activities have been affected which changed behavioural patterns of the common public. A lot of countries have imposed lockdown, social distancing, use of masks and sanitizers, frequent hand washing, vaccination, and other preventive measures. Elderly citizens have been the most vulnerable group which has been affected by the pandemic.
Objective – Considering the above arguments, this study is aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on elderly people in India, especially their daily life, physical and mental health, social life, and preventive measures taken by them.
Methodology – An empirical survey was conducted as part of descriptive research. A self-structured questionnaire was sent through Google Form to collect survey data online. Total 126 responses were collected to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on elderly. All the survey participants are elderly to meet the inclusion criteria. SPSS version 22 was used to analyse the survey data.
Result – The finding of the study suggests that there was a significant impact of COVID-19 on daily life and overall health of elderly in India (p<0.05). However, the best part is that all of the survey respondents have followed all security measures suggested by the government, such as double dose of vaccination, social distancing, masks and sanitizers, and avoiding social gatherings.


Süreyya Yonca SEZER, Baha Engin ÇELİKEL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6630-6642

Covid-19 has largely maintained its effect in our country as well as in the world. This has adversely affected the lives of people by staying in quarantine or curfew. It was aimed to determine the Nutritional Levels and Physical Activity Habits of Physical Education and Sports Teachers during the Covid-19 Process with this study. The model of our study was applied to determine the nutritional habits and physical activity levels of physical education and sports teachers in the Eastern Anatolia region during the COVID-19 process. The population of our research consists of physical education and sports teachers among the teachers in the Eastern Anatolia region. The sample of our study consisted of 278 randomly selected people from among physical education teachers. In our study, in order to determine the healthy lifestyles of physical education and sports teachers, a questionnaire aimed at "Examination of Nutritional Habits and Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Healthcare Professionals" through Yücel (2015) and a short form of "International Physical Activity Questionnaire" were developed by Erdoğan(2021) and adapted to the pandemic process bydeveloping "Nutritional Knowledge Level, Nutritional Habits and Physical Activity Levels in the Pandemic Process" and a questionnaire with 26 questions was applied to determine the nutritional knowledge levels, nutritional habits and physical activity levels of teachers. The data obtained in our study were transferred to the SPSS 22 package program and analyzed and the significance level was accepted as p<0.05. It was determined that 37.1% of physical education teachers had changes in their eating habits, they ate 2 meals with 56.8% of their daily main meals, Lunch with 56.1% of the meals they skipped during the day, Meal skipping reasons were caused by changes in their sleep pattern with 30.9%, 36% of them did not change the type of food they consumed at the snack, the most common type of food/beverage they consumed between meals was fruit/dry fruit with 40.6%, and 47.8% of them did not change their daily fluid consumption and as daily water consumption, 33.5% of physical education teachers consumed 1.5 liters of water. When the physical activity levels were examined, it was found that 45% of the physical education teachers did not do regular physical activity, 42.8% exercised once a week, and in physical activity, there was no change, 59% of them did their physical activities in the gym, it was also determined that  36.7% of them think their physical activities are beneficial, 37.4% were partially affected by the stay at home project, and 53.2% had increased body weight.
As a result, it is thought that there are changes in nutritional knowledge levels and physical activity levels, that it negatively affects human health during the pandemic period, and that adequate/balanced nutrition and physical activity during the COVID-19 process will positively affect people's health.

Cross Reactivity of Dengue, Scrub Typhus and Malaria among COVID-19 Positive Patients: A Tropical World Threat & A Sero-Diagnostic Challenge

Kumari Seema, Abhay Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Manju Boipai, Ashok Kumar Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5965-5970

Purpose: Diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) has been a challenge and burden in clinical practice in the tropics. COVID-19 cases that present with fever alone may be difficult to distinguish from other AUFIs in the tropics. Malaria, Scrub Typhus and Dengue fever are among the most common endemic diseases in the tropics. With the availability of rapid sero-diagnostic tests for these infections, it has been observed that patient’s samples frequently show seropositivity for two or more infections posing challenges in clinical diagnosis and treatment. This study was performed to determine the false-positive serological test (seropositivity) in COVID-19 patients for Scrub typhus, Dengue and Malaria.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a type of observational prospective study conducted from April 2020 to November 2020. A total of 574 febrile patients which were positive in Real time PCR for Covid-19, were included in the study.
Results: Dengue IgM antibody positive for 124, Scrub typhus IgM antibody positive in 107 and no positive in malarial test, were found.
Conclusion: Our experience suggests that false-positive in the serological test should be interpreted with caution and requires surveillance. There should be a continuous follow-up of these patients during COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of recognising false positive serological results in patients with COVID-19, especially in the resource-constrained tropical settings.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Current Trends About Dental Prosthesis And Impression Disinfection Method Amongst Dental Laboratories: Perspectives As Per Covid-19 Pandemic

Priyanka Kumari, TC Devikaa, Liyingbeni Lotha, Rohit Kumar, Rashi Gupta, Snigdha Shree .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9992-9999

Background & Aim: Impression making is one of the most common procedures that are performed by dentist in day to day practice. These impressions can act as vehicle of transmission and carry various type of microorganism. The aim was to assess the knowledge attitude and practice of current trends about dental prosthesis and impression disinfection method amongst dental laboratories; perspectives as per Covid-19 pandemic.
Materials and Methods: A survey was and the contact details of nearby dental laboratories were obtained from the State Registry of Indian Dental Association. Emails, contact number and postal address were recorded for study purposes. A questionnaire was designed to conduct the survey; it has total eight questions related to disinfection method used in dental laboratories as per COVID-19 perspective. The questions were prepared to include various aspects of disinfection method used by dental laboratories as per COVID-19 protocols. All data was sent for statistical analysis for further analysis and interpretations. P value less than 0.05 was taken as significant.
Statistical Analysis & Results: Statistical analysis was performed by using statistical package for the Social Sciences software. Results showed that out of 85 subjects who filled out the Google form, for the question item, “DO YOU DISINFECT THE DENTAL IMPRESSION?” maximum (67.1%) respondents selected the choice “YES” followed by the choice “SOMETIMES” as chosen by 28.2%. The significant difference was found in the proportion of various choice selections among the respondents. Out of 85 subjects who filled out the Google form, for the question item, “HOW DO YOU DISINFECT THE DENTAL IMPRESSION?”, maximum (29.4%) respondents selected the choice “WATER THEN SPRAY” followed by the choice “SPRAY AND IMMERSE” and “IMMERSE ONLY” as chosen by 21.2% for both.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that practices and awareness among dental technicians regarding cross-infection control are very less than required, and this seems to increase the risk of transmission of diseases. This survey indicates that knowledge among the personnel participated in the study is less than ideal.

Genome Analysis for Sequence Variants in Sars-Cov -2 in Symptomatic Individuals at Tertiary Care Hospital

M. Mary Sumani, Lavanya.D, Padma Priya. N, Queenileena.p, Vijayaswetha.v

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2608-2613

Background: COVID-19 is an acute viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2(SARS-CoV-2). Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, multiple new variants of concern have emerged which are associated with enhanced transmissibility and increased virulence? It also highlights the role of the clinical interprofessional teams, public health agencies, and community participation in improving patientcare. An analysis of genomic sequencing variants of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients during 2nd and 3rd wave of pandemic by next-generation sequencing (NGS).
Material and Methods: A total of 200 symptomatic patients, throat/nasopharyngeal swab were collected for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) at tertiary care hospital, Ongole. The specimens were transported under cold chain according to guidelines to Centre for Cellular & Molecular biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, for genome sequence analysis by next generation sequencing (NGS). Study period – 2ndwave i.e., MARCH 2021 –NOVEMBER 2021 & 3rdwave i.e., DECEMBER 2021 –MARCH 2022 according to WHO.
Results: Out of 200 samples analysed, 132 samples of 2nd wave & 68 samples in 3rd wave. Out of 132 samples, 57 Delta (B.1.617.2), 75 Delta sub-lineages. Out of 68 samples 41 Omicron (B.1.1.529), 11 Omicron lineages (BA.1), 16 Omicron (BA.2).
Conclusion: During the 2ndwave the symptomatic patients were detected with more delta and delta sub lineages showing high mortality rate. During 3rdwave omicron and omicron sub lineages were detected more than delta showing very high transmissibility and less mortality. Continuous monitoring and analysis of the sequence variants to understand the genetic heterogenicity.

A cross-sectional study to analysis of depression level among frontline health care worker, working at tertiary care canter during COVID-19 at central India

Chouhan Vijay, Churihar Ritesh, Shukla Aanand, Baghel Anil Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 475-479

Background: At the end of 2019 a new viral disease namely covid-19 has occurred which was highly
contagious within a few months it spreads to more than 100 countries. A poor understanding of new
infections and lack of knowledge leads to compromised patient health benefits as well as psychological
stress to front-line health workers. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and level of perception of
health care workers about covid-19.
Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was carried out among front-line health care workers who
work at tertiary health care centers the survey instrument constituted a semi-structured pre-tested
questionnaire. The 29-item questionnaire was divided into two sections. Statistical tool chi-square test
used to investigate the stress, anxiety, and depression with significance set to p<.05.
Results: Out of 100 participants 30 front-line health care workers have minimal depression, 25 mild
depression, 14 moderate depression, 13 moderately severe depression, maximum participants belong to
age group 26-35 (P-value .001). The participant with a child is a total of 67 out of 100 participants who
show a variety of depression, Maximum number of participants is 21 having mild depression P (value is
.010). There total of 57 participants who confident caring covid-19 patient, maximum of 22 participants
who have mild depression (P-value is .000).
Conclusion: As the entire world faced the covid-19 thread and continued to emerge, most frontline health
care workers have a varying degree of depression but according to PHQ-9 no one has severe depression.
Definitive or effective treatment of covid-19 including prevention of this by vaccination is mandatory.
Education intervention, personal protection equipment and appropriate knowledge are urgently needed
to reach frontline health care work beyond the international border and future studies are warranted.

A comparative study to find out/ assess the impact of lockdown on the mental health of the general population and covid-19 frontline health care workers

Nandkishor Tak, Aditya Soni, Abhilasha Suwalka, Rujul Modi, Manju bhasker .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3019-3029

Background: Lockdown is an emergency situation which has confined people to their homes, states and country. Individuals felt insecure and worried about their financial matters and their mental health was affected at some point of time during the corona virus pandemic lockdown.
Aim: The study aimed to assess the effect of lockdown on mental health between the general population and covid-19 frontline health care workers.
Material and Methods: The survey was conducted from July to October 2020 using DSM -5 Self-Rated level 1 cross-cutting symptom measure -Adult scale, circulated through social media platform (Google forms). In this study, 180 participants were enrolled. Hindi version of the measure was used to assess the psychological impact on the participants and a score of 0 was considered as NO and was taken as a Negative response and scores 1 to 4, were considered as YES and were taken as a positive responses.
Result: A total of 180 responses were obtained during the survey, amongst them 36.67% were male and 63.33%were female. Frontline healthcare workers were 51.67% and among the Non-health care workers, unemployed were 10%, Student were 17.78%, and the remaining working were 56.67%. As per DSM 5 Crosscutting symptoms scores, the most common reported psychological symptoms were Anxiety  81.11%, Depression  52.78%, Sleep problems  29.44%, and Substance use 25%,. The comparison between both the groups was not statistically significant (p>0.001). However, non-healthcare workers experienced more psychological symptoms.
conclusion: The covid-19 lockdown was associated with poor mental health across individuals .the lockdown was observed  to be a stressful situation that could have precipitated psychological symptoms like anxiety, stress, depression, and sleep disturbance in the individuals.

Study of X-Ray findings of COVID 19 from Assam medical college and hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam

Dr. Parama Nanda Taye, Dr. Siddhartha Sarma Biswas, Dr. Mary Hazarika Bhuyan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2155-2161

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented surge in hospitalised patients with viral pneumonia. Chest X-Ray (CXR) is one of the important, non-invasive methods and used as a preliminary investigation to detect different pulmonary abnormalities. Present study was aimed to study X-ray findings of COVID 19 from Assam medical college and hospital, Dibrugarh. Assam.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, prospective, observational study, conducted in patients 18-65 years age, who were confirmed cases of COVID 19 by RT PCR or RAT testing.
Results: In present study, 220 patients satisfying study criteria were evaluated. Chest X ray abnormalities were noted in 48.18% cases initially, while in 2.73% cases, initial normal CXRs later became abnormal. 5.91% CXRs had unilateral abnormalities while 42.27% CXRs had bilateral abnormalities. Symmetrical abnormal findings was noted in 21.82% as compared to asymmetrical abnormal findings in 20.45% cases. CXRs lesion distribution was peripheral location (35.91%), central location (5.91%) & combined peripheral and central location (6.36%). Localization of abnormalities in CXRs was in Lower, Middle & upper zone in 32.73%, 10.45% & 5% respectively. Common specific radiographic abnormalities were Ground glass opacities (GGOs) (42.73%), Consolidation (23.64%), Nodularity (0.91%), Reticular opacity (5.91%) & Pleural effusion (9.55%), Severity score in present study was mild, moderate & severe in 33.18%, 11.82% & 3.18% cases respectively.
Conclusion: Chest X-ray is a valuable tool in better management of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite its lower sensitivity compared with CT scans, its inherent advantages such as reasonable cost, broad range of use, and rapid speed make it indispensable.


Md. Zamshaid Ansari, Dr. Vikash Chandra, Dr. Sanjay Kumar, Dr. Tulika Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11447-11455

Introduction: Possibility of breakthrough infection to Covid-19 variants which may cross vaccine induced immunityas immunity acquired from natural COVID-19 infection or vaccines is not absolute and reinfections postnatural COVID-19 infections, as well as vaccine breakthrough infections, are not uncommon. Furthermore, lack of data is available on breakthrough infection as well as reinfection in India especially in Bihar. Thus, the present study is undertaken to find out magnitude of breakthrough infection and re-infection of COVID 19 and to find out factors associated with breakthrough infection and re-infection.
Materials and Method: The present telephone based cross sectional study was carried over a period of 3 months among400 subjects of age group ≥18yrs vaccinated with both doses of COVID Vaccine. A predesigned; semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was designed for elucidating the information about demographic details, vaccination, infection and serology. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Chi square test was used to analyze association. P value of <0.05 considered significant.
Results: Regarding patients who suffered from Covid breakthrough infection after vaccination were 40 patients and patients who suffered from reinfection, total was 8 patients, among them 1 positive patient was out of 137 who were in age group of 18-25 years, 4 out of 59were in 26-44 years, 0 out of 17 were in 45-59 years and 3 out of 187were ≥60 years age group. P-value was significant with p=0.037 (as p>0.05). Regarding vaccine intake, among 400 subjects, 134 subjects were suffering were vaccinated with Covaxin, out of which 17 acquired covid breakthrough infection; those who were given Covishield, out of 242, 22 acquired covid breakthrough infection and among 24 subjects who were not knowing about type of vaccination given 1 acquired covid breakthrough infection. P-value was not significant among all those parameters.
Conclusion: The study identifies the possibility of breakthrough infections among vaccinated peoples and ensures the impact of vaccination in limiting disease severity. However, prior vaccination provided substantial protection against symptomatic re-infection and severe disease. The findings suggest that COVID-19 preventive measures should be continued even among vaccinated individuals. Breakthrough infection in India after complete dose of vaccination should be major area of research.

Adverse events following COVID vaccination among undergraduate students in a medical college, South India: A cross sectional study

Dr. Nandini RC, Dr. Tejashwini K, Dr. Shanthi M, Dr. Dilip Kumar, Nishitha Gowda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1786-1802

Background: COVID Vaccination has given a ray of hope in fighting against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Since the experiences are relatively new to all, it is important to monitor safety of vaccines in a real-world setting. With this background, this study was conducted.
Objective: To assess the pattern of AEFI among undergraduate students.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a Hospital setting with 200 vaccinated medical students being enrolled in the study and Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.00.
Results: Total of 200 medical students, 142(71%) and 74(37%) of study subjects had one or more AEFI following COVID-19 vaccination following 1st and 2nd dose respectively. All the AEFI’s (100%) were only minor reactions.
Conclusion: The study reflected that COVID-19 vaccination caused only mild and non-serious AEFI in most of the vaccine recipients. Hence the vaccine given can be considered safe. 

Role of vital parameters and biomarkers in predicting the outcome of patients in Covid ICU: A comparative study

SouravBansal, Arghadip Das,Nikhat Fatima Mansoori, Irshan Ali Mohammed, Vinodh Boopalraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1159-1168

Aim: The aim of the present study to compare the vital parameters and biomarkers in
predicting the outcome of patients in Covid ICU.
Methods: 200 patient were divided in to two groups, Group A of those who expired and
Group B of the survivors. The mean for each parameter was calculated and compared
among the two groups and based on which p value was calculated for each parameter
undertaken in clinical evaluation. Blood reports of investigations assessing the levels of
biomarkers like Procalcitonin (PCT), C- Reactive Protein (CRP), D-dimer, Ferritin,
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) sent on first day and last day of
hospitalisation in covid ICU were collected for Group A (Expired) and Group B (Survived)
and master chart was prepared.
Results: The study population comprised of 200 confirmed Covid-19 cases, among which
those expired (Group A) were 103, and those who survived (Group B) were 97. The mean
age difference was statistically significant (p value = 0.003). The mean Heart Rate on day
of admission was statistically significant (p value = 0.005). The mean Heart Rate on last
day of hospitalisation difference was statistically significant (p value = 0.001). The
Median PCT levels along with along with its interquartile range in Group A (Expired)
versus Group B (Survivors) on day of admission the difference was statistically significant
(p value < 0.001). The Median Ferritin levels along with its interquartile range in Group A
(Expired) versus Group B (Survivors) on day of admission the difference was statistically
significant (p value < 0.0003). The Median Ferritin levels along with its interquartile range
in Group A (Expired) versus Group B (Survivors) on last day of hospitalisation the
difference was statistically significant (p value < 0.001).

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pandemic Covid-19 in pregnancy in Basrah

Maysoon Sharief, C.A.B.O.G.; Gufran Jaafar, C.A.B.O.G.,; Alla Hussan, M. B. Ch. B., D.O.G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 517-529

To evaluate the maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in pregnant women with Covid-19 infection. Setting and design: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in Basrah Teaching Hospital, Iraq during the period 15/3/2020 till 1/11/2020. There were 135 infected pregnant women with Covid-19. The maternal information's were obtained included Age, parity, residence, travel history, gestational age at time of diagnosis. The pregnancy measures of interest were evaluated according to the severity of the disease, medical disease, history of antepartum hemorrhage, mode of delivery, type of delivery, post-natal complication and admission to
intensive care unit and maternal death. The neonatal outcomes of interest were fetal weight, neonatal Apgar
score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal death. Results: The mild type of the disease was common (41.48%) in comparison to severe conditions (17.77%).

Predictive study of the end of the Covid-19 pandemic in Morocco by regression, and ARIMA modeling (p, d, q)

Majdouline Larif; Adnane Aouidate; Mohammed Bouachrine; Tahar Lakhlifi; Abdelmajid Soulaymani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2009-2018

Objective and methods: The objective of our study is to provide forecasts on the key data of the
epidemiological situation in Morocco in order to predict the number of beds in hospitals.The data sources
used in this study are official and they were daily collected updated with information from the Moroccan
Ministry of Health at 6:00 p.m. before the month of Ramadan and 4:00 p.m. for this month.
The autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA was applied to real-time for the two month
Predictions on the Moroccan population. ARIMA models were able to estimate the number of positive cases
confirmed based on two criteria. The first criterion is to determine the reliability of the statistics and the
second one is to measure the accuracy of forecasting ability of the model equation. The sparse model with
the lowest order of the (AR) or (MA) and (RMSE) values of the forecasts for each dataset was considered the
Result and Conclusion: The ARIMA (1,0,0), ARIMA (9,0,0) and ARIMA (10,0,1) models were deemed to be
the best suited to provide the best possible model to predict the number of positive cases for two months of
prediction of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).
However, the ARIMA model (10,0,1) predicts the best model with an expected end of home confinement at
the end of June 2020 with an epidemiological peak of 5000 accumulated cases caused by the coronavirus
disease 2019 (Covid-19) on 13/05/2029.The models were able to predict the number of confirmed cases of the
coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) within a range of two months in Morocco. Thus, it can be a useful tool
for health officials to improve management of the fight against the pandemic and to warn in advance of the
spread of the pandemic.


Harikumar Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3773-3782

One of Elon Musk's Twitter posts created much buzz in India and most certainly in the southern State of Karnataka in India. His EV company Tesla is planning on expanding to another East Asian Market after the Shanghai branch dealt with R&D and sold almost 50,000 units. Moreover, India is one of the most likely targets which Tesla would be aiming for, not only because of the humongous workforce capability that the country could offer but also for the development of rules and regulations for the improvement and the enhancement of EV’s in the country. Since the development of the EV policy, 2017 in the state of Karnataka, which pioneered the same and proved itself to be worthy of the badge of "EV Hub" of India, with many tech start-ups pushing the boundaries in the field of EV. Some of the latest news articles in the papers discussed the probability of Tesla being interested in forming another enterprise in the country, which is exciting news. This would not only mean the change in the economic spectrum of the country because of the remarkable improvement of the Tesla Stocks in the USA but also a significant chance for employment, leading to the push in the Indian economy, which is most required at this time of distress and dilemma because of the COVID-19 pandemic which struck.

Real-Time Measurement Of Psychological Impact Due To E- Learning; Among The Undergraduate Dental Students During Covid-19

H.M. Owais Nasim; Azeem Ul Yaqin Syed; Laraib Qamar; Saba Saleem; Zainab Javaid; Ayesha Khalid; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nausheen Aga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7875-7884

Objectives: To assess the psychological factors in undergraduate dental students towards elearning
in clinical skills education compared to traditional teaching methods and their
relationship with performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: In this study, survey conducted among 494undergraduate dental students of all four
sessions from different dental universities within the Pakistan. Total 494 undergraduate
dental students responded to a 28-question online survey to identify e- learning is more
convenient and practical than traditional learning and to measure it 5- point Likert Scale used.
To measure level of psychological impact, Hamilton Anxiety Scale used due to e-learning
among undergraduate dental students.
Results: The majority of undergraduate dental student’s responded e-learning is not
convenient and practical than traditional learning system. The majority of undergraduate
dental students reported very severe level of psychological impact due to e-learning and closing
of institutions during COVID-19 pandemic. Results are statistically significant and analyzed
on IBM SPSS version 23. There are 82% students responded having problem with e-learning
system and among them 58 % have very severe anxiety and 24% have severe anxiety. So the
results shows increased percentage of anxiety due e-learning.


Dr.Arun Kumar; Dr.Monisha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5365-5374

The therapy of COVID-19 has attracted great interest in Chloroquine. The latest focus on these chloroquine applications has contributed to a survey on the effect and possibility of hormonobiphase dose reaction on extremely biologically different models. The examination showed that chloroquin usually induced hormetal effects that impacted many types of cells, including tumour cell lines (e.g. human breasts, colons, colones) and non-tumor cell lines, improved viral reproduction, motility of semen, varied behavioural endpoints, and decreased the risk of convulsions. These diverse and nuanced findings indicate that hormetic dose reactions with different biological models and endpoints are common in chloroquine treatments. These findings impact the nature of the study, including dosage number and distance, and suggest a variety of clinical challenges and opportunities focused on the expected outcome.

An Overview Of Punjab, Haryana And Himachal Pradesh Government’s Interventions In Education Sector During Covid 19 Pandemic

Marisha Narula; Dr. Rohita Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6366-6371

impact of pandemic COVID-19 is being felt in every sector around the world. The rules of engagements are now changed as countries are imposing blanket lockdowns nationwide. India is no exception. Thus schools and colleges are now forced to keep their shutters down as well. The already crumbling education system is now further forced to disintegrate. The technological divide among the urban and the rural, the rich and the poor is now more apparent as schools have adopted online teaching methods via various online platforms. The access to a smartphone varies across the nation and so does the basic literacy of how to operate them. Lack of internet penetration in India is another dilemma since only 50% of the households have an active internet connection. This has forced the current government to reinvent strategies to provide education via mass channels. DIKSHA platform is one such example. It's an online platform primarily for school education. It offers teachers, parents and students engaging learning material relevant to the prescribed school curriculum but requires an active internet connection. To bridge this gap, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting introduced SWAYAM PRABHA which has 32
DTH TV channels transmitting educational contents on 24/7 basis across the country. These platforms are absolutely free to use. But platforms like these are just a pedestal. Since education is a concurrent subject, states also bear the responsibility of ratifying their educational strategies. Many states are walking down the path of the central government by establishing their own platforms. The government of Nagaland was recently lauded for their education initiative. TV
and Radio education was offered through Doordarshan Kendra Kohima and All India RadiKohima while in the second phase the programme expanded to digital content distribution through a dedicated Youtube Channel. This paper highlights some measures taken byGovernments of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal pradesh in the field of online education. Also challenges faced by these governments are highlighted.

Compare the Vital Concepts of Mother of All Pandemic Spanish Flu and COVID-19: A Promising Review

Gomathi Swaminathan; Srikanth Jupudi; Sathish R; Roshan NS; Gowramma B; Kalirajan Rajagopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1466-1483

In every century, few invisible infectious diseases create an alarm to the entire world and which leads to extermination of the population. In 1918 and 2019, the world has tackled truculent diseases such as mother of all pandemic Spanish flu and COVID 19. The mortality rate of Spanish flu was greater than in the first world war. After 100 years’ same history was repeated in 2019 through COVID 19.  Suddenly a huge number of pneumonia cases were reported in the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. These two outbreaks make medical, social and financial burden to the entire world. This kind of sudden pandemic breaks mental health and creates panic, anxiety and depression. Pharmaceutical preventive measures are not supported during both pandemics which was rectified by non-pharmaceutical preventive steps like lockdown, quarantine, wearing facemask and gloves, washing hands and applying sanitizer, follow the social distancing, closing cinema hall and schools, avoiding mass gathering in 1918and 2019-2020. The main objective of this review is to compare and summarize the concepts of both pandemics and how the people of the world need to come together and fight against common enemies, to warrant that we have the best scientific resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end.

Pandemic V/S Politics: Political Aspect Of COVID-19 In India

Sandeep Kumar; Dr. Vinod CV; Dr. PavitarParkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6455-6460

Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) that was declared as Pandemic by WHO, does not only affect the medical and health aspect of people but it put a deep effect on the politics either it may be national of international. The breakout of Corona virus has exposed the various abilities and inabilities of Governments to handle with it. It exposed the social relations of people, medical infrastructure and facilities to handle with it, stability of economy, and even the political handouts played by politicians to remain in the power or to get the power. The studies show that most of the political leaders emerged either from the world wars or any pandemic. A US-based survey showed that there is great increase in the popularity of NarendraModi after the breakout of Corona. Net approval rating of NarendraModi reaches 68 points up that was 62 at the beginning of the year 2020. As just before the breakout of Corona virus in India PM NarendraModi was facing serious challenges like Anti government Protest (due to CAB and NPR), Hindu-Muslim Riots exploded in New Delhi, Economy was slumping and shedding millions of jobs etc.So with all these challenges many of these problems (especially economical) have gotten worse in India. But still according to the recent opinion polls Modi’s High approval rate have soared even higher, touching 80 to 90 percent. Oftenly two most populist leaders US President Trump and Russian President Vladimir V. Putin are compared but according to the opinion poll NarendraModi seems to be thriving in this crisis.

Global Economy and Consumerism: An Analysis

Dr.Javeed Ahmad Bhat; Naseer Ahmad Bhat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5895-5898

Global economy because of COVID-19 has tanked to historical lows. It is not the first time in the world history that global community is bracing for a pandemic. COVID-19 started in Wuhan, the global epicentre of both—the virus as well as the economic bustle and flurry. After the few days of proliferation of the virus, busy streets of Wuhan were back to deserted scenes. China is currently the production house of the world. The dangers to the health sector of the countries is definitely under tremendous pressure but more worryingly, it is threatening world economy into recession. US Federal Reserve has gone for an emergency rate-cut of half percentage point. This is the biggest since 2008 financial crises. But the step seems more a knee-jerk reaction out of compulsion rather than a mature policy decision.


Dr..Gomathi M; Dr.Jaikumar S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5619-5626

The causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has omnipresent worldwide spread, infecting more than two million people and causing over 150,000 deaths worldwide, resulting in devastating global health emergencies. Extreme acute respiratory syndrome 2 (sarkozydia) Early in its global expansion, the COVI-19 pandemic was further fuelled by insufficient access to laboratory research. Real-time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel was the first test obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration on February 4, 2020, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2019–Novel Coronavirus (2019–nCoV)1–3. This test was therefore introduced by a significant number of public health and clinical labs in the USA. Many manufacturers of commercial instruments then obtained EUAs for molecular SARS-CoV-2 identification. However, producers also assign reagents. Many of the clinical laboratories have therefore used several platforms to satisfy research criteria.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.

The Test Of Humanity During The Covid-19 Situation In Indonesia

Elfindah Princes; Teddy Indira Budiwan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 435-445

The history has shown that during dangerous situation, people seek for their own safety. However, the example shown from the Covid-19 quick anticipation in Wuhan, China has shown the exact opposite. The researcher tries to identify human behaviors during the pandemic situation of Covid-19 in Indonesia. The researcher argues that compared to other countries, Indonesian people have different characteristics and responses. They are more self-centered and judgmental. Using the qualitative approach, the researcher classifies the people into 4 groups during a pandemic situation with two main groups as the research priority. First, the egocentric group as the group dominating the food and medical supplies. The panic buying in Indonesia causes this group of people to pile up stocks at home and cause the retail price to rocket. The second group is the profit-seeking group who takes advantage of this situation and sells the important food and medical supply in high price. The four groups represent the chaotic society culture in Indonesia and are the main reasons for questions if the humanity still exists. This research gives an understanding to the government to face the next pandemic if it happens someday. There are two limitations. First, at the time this research is made, the Covid-19 pandemic is still ongoing. There is a high possibility that a new group might appear near or at the end of the pandemic. Second, this paper does not separate the people into groups of different income levels, age groups and gender. Future research should address these limitations.

Journalism And Covid 19: A Study Of How Indian Journalists Are Managing Their Work Amid The Pandemic

Dr. Pavitar Parkash Singh; Sabeeha Shaheen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 2888-2891

The novel Corona Virus that casted a spell in China turned around and engulfed the whole globe. With nothing available to combat such a preposterous and deadly virus, India too surrendered to the virus. The Corona Virus outbreak has unleashed a terror which world could have hardly imagined of. It has engulfed every sector and every field into its helm. Journalism too hit a bad rock because of the virus. Media mostly thrives on the ground zero reports and stories but due to the virus it has paralyzed the activities thus crippled the ground level work. The present study will enlighten us how journalists of India are managing their work amid the Covid 19 outbreak.

Entanglements Of Teaching Literature During The Pandemic

Raisun Mathew; Dr. Digvijay Pandya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6137-6140

The onset of COVID-19 pandemic has overturned the normative and processual structures of life and has also affected the education sector worldwide. Irrespective of disciplines, the traditional forms of teaching and learning processes have shifted to its online/virtual platforms. This research paper would discuss the entanglements of the teaching process concerning the disciplines of literature during the liminal period of the pandemic. Through descriptive and comparative methods, this qualitative research would analyse whether the online/virtual platforms are effective in assisting the teaching-learning process in general. Teaching in the classroom with the physical presence and online/virtual teaching possibilities were compared. The findings of the research show that in teaching literature, the traditional model of physical presence in teaching is more effective compared to that of the online/virtual teaching-learning process. The insights of the research would help scholars to conduct different perspectives based on the theme of the paper.

Mental Health Issues and Consideration in Post Covid-19 era

M.Yousuf Adam; Dr.Muhammad Amin Wani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6330-6336

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) entered at the end of last year in China, and slowly occupied rest of world. In India, Government declared complete Lockdown in second half of March, soon after three or four months later country slowly lifted Lockdown. But, covid-19 pandemic is still there. Along with biological complication due to covid-19, we suffered with lots of mental health issues due to psychological and economical aspects.
Objective: Aim of this study is to assess mental health status irrespective of gender, age group, location, stress, chronic disease and covid-19 infection. Also, to investigate mean difference between various demographic variables in order to examine most vulnerable people towards mental health illness.
Material and method: Due to covid-19 and social distancing, the researchers were carried this study using demographic variables and the mental health inventory (MHI-38) in internet and social media platform from September 13 to September 23, 2020. The data collected were more than hundred, but the researchers took only hundred respondents to analyse data statistically and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: The result revealed that mean difference of mental health in relation to gender, age group, and stress were statistically significant and their corresponding p-value were 0.0447, 0.0048 and 0.0001 respectively. Mental health status increases with increase income, and there were no statistical significant in respective to covid-19 testing, location, or chronic disease. The researchers have concluded this study with mental health consideration from latest reviewed paper and mentioned possible strategies to control mental health problem.

A Review Study On Relationship Among Covid-19 And Inflammation

Mr.Ponnazhagan .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5440-5444

In reality, numerous research works have begun to report the metabolic function of COVID-19 shifts. Characteristically characterised are I decline in low-density (LDL-c) and high-density (HDL-c) cholesterol lipoproteins, (later proportionate with the gravity of the symptoms), and (ii) a mild rise in the populating T-assistance cell populations (CD3+T, CD4+T) and (iii) CD8+T lymphopenia. Further, in seriously ill patients the overall counts of White Blood Cells (WBC) is considerably higher, with a macrophage activation syndrome that was supported by the existence of the bronchoalveolar monocyte recruitment chemokines.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic In Private Dental Clinics In North India: An Original Research

Dr. Yash Pal Singh; Dr. Brajesh Gupta; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Akshay M. Dhewale; Dr. Monika Saini; Dr. Shraddha Joshi; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6521-6526

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding infection control practice against coronavirus infection in various dental clinics in North India.
Methodology: A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 200 dentists. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was distributed, based upon knowledge of COVID-19, transmission as well as prevention strategies that can be implemented in dental clinics for stopping the chain of outbreak of this pandemic. The data was analysed with the help of descriptive statistics.
Results: 71% of study participants felt the need for using N-95 masks routinely during patient treatment. An astounding number of participants (92%), believed that there have been significant changes in infection control after COVID-19 pandemic. 65% of participants believed that HVE suction devices as well as HEPA filters need to be used to control aerosol spread so as to prevent COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: Dentists in North India showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. Improving dentists’ level of knowledge could be achieved through increasing their accessibility to materials provided by dental health care authorities, which specifies the best and safest approaches for dealing with patients during and after the outbreak.

A Review of Coronavirus Transmission

Dr. Maheswari K; Dr. Anand V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5326-5331

Earlier in December 2019, a novel extreme coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Region, China. The World Health Organisation announced the epidemic as an international disaster in public health on 30 January 2020. As of 14 February 2020, there were 49,053 laboratory-confirmed fatalities and 1,381 deaths worldwide. Many governments have become at risk of contracting illness after implementing a series of prevention steps. We performed a literature review of resources accessible to the public to synthesise pathogen and emerging disease awareness. This literature review analyses the causative cause, pathogenesis and immune reactions, epidemiology, detection, care and managing methods for the epidemic, regulating and preventing.

Geographical Aspects Of The Study Of Global Pandemies

Komilova Nilufar Karshiboyevna; ,Turdimambetov Izimbet Rakhmetovich; Ravshanov Aliqul Xudoyberdiyevich; Mahmudova Manzura Juraevna; Payzieva Madina Ulug'bek qizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 524-529

Mankind has struggled with many diseases throughout its history. Infectious diseases are especially prevalent among the population. According to its scope, such infectious diseases are called pandemics, epidemics. Among the population of Central Asia, a number of diseases, such as plague, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, and ringworm, have caused partial or mass extinction. The characteristics of the geographical distribution of these diseases largely depended on the natural and social geographical conditions of the regions, the lifestyle and traditions of the population.The effects of the Spanish flu pandemic, which has killed nearly 100 million people in the last hundred years among a wide range of diseases, have had a profound effect on the nosogeographic situation, especially in Europe and later in the Americas. Analyzes show that the deterioration of the environment, man's unlimited domination of nature, the deterioration of the ecological situation, as well as the spread of related diseases on earth pose new challenges to medical geography, which studies the causes and patterns. The rapid development of science and technology, the steady increase in human impact on nature and consequently, a number of negative changes in the natural environment have a significant impact on human health. The acceleration of the process of urbanization which in turn causes problems such: as air, water and soil pollution.

Assessment Of Risk Factors For Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) In Health Workers

Kirmanj I Baker; Sabah M Zanagana; Nazar A Hasani; Suhaila S Tahir; Burhan O Rasheed; Amal A Rasheed; Mena A Darweesh; Abdulkarim M Ismail

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 254-266

Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by novel Corona virus; it has infected millions of people and caused mortality of more than half million people around globe.
Objective: The study aimed to assess risk factors of infection with COVID-19 among health care workers (HCW) from different aspects.
Methods: A cross sectional study was applied based upon a WHO assessment protocol to explore the real facts and situation leading to Health Care Workers infections.
Results: The current study has shown that health care workers were often affected by the disease exploring that males and young age employees had predominantly higher percentage of infection.
Regarding the occupation, it was clear that doctors were the most often symptomatic (45%) of the total studied samples; 46% contracted the infection through contact with patients at work. Finally the study illustrated that only 46% tried their best to protect themselves from infection and 4 out of 44 cases denied the existence of the pandemic.
Conclusion: It was concluded that males were predominantly infected, patients with longer exposure had higher rate of infection and those properly using PPE had less chance to acquire the disease.


Dr. Ardhanaari M; Dr.Anita Harry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5664-5670

After the 2019 pandemic Coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by Extreme Acute RESS 2 coronavirus syndrome was identified (SARS-CoV-2), our ways of managing ourselves socially and on a regular basis have changed unprecedentedly. The sudden isolation from education, social life and recreational sports has had great impacts on children and teenagers. In certain cases, domestic abuse has also increased. Due to heightened anxiety, changes in their diet and school dynamics, fear or even lack of a component of the issue1,2, stress has a direct effect on their mental health. Our purpose is to address the need to supervise and treat persons in various areas and to alert public health and government agents. We hope that effective and prompt action will minimise harm to your mental health as a result of the side effects of this pandemic.

Indonesian Government Dilematics In Covid-19 Pandemic Handling

Andi Azikin; Karno .; Pratiwi Nurhascaryani; Fitriani .; Suhaeti .; Yoyok Cahyono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 125-133

The purpose of this paper is to describe the extent to which Indonesia's ability to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Indonesia The Corona virus outbreak or commonly known as Covid-19 is getting more and more violent. The virus thought to have originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan has claimed many lives. Not only in the bamboo curtain country, countries on the continent of Europe, Asia, America and Africa are also affected by this virus, including Indonesia. World Health Organization (WHO) has designated COVID-19 as a pandemic. This pandemic has spread in 212 countries. Quoting from Worldometers, there were 3,911,454 people in the world infected with the corona virus, the death toll from the SARS-CoV-2 virus reached 270,339 people. While those who recovered were recorded as many as 1,340,231 as of Friday. The Covid 19 pandemic has also weakened global economic growth, due to economic downturns. People in countries that have implemented lockdowns or social distancing have paralyzed the country's economy, many industries have closed and even laid off their employees. The impact is that the decreasing income of the lower middle class, especially workers and daily businesses, which are large in number, will quickly trigger a social contraction. Before the Corona outbreak alone, Indonesia had a potential crisis, due to Indonesia's dependence on imported goods to meet domestic consumption. This research is qualitative in nature by looking at the facts and existing data both from direct observation and from various electronic media. In the conditions of the Covid 19 pandemic, the Indonesian government established a Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy with a social - physical distincting approach. , not by lockdown. This policy was taken by the government with economic considerations and the state's ability to worry about being unable to provide for the basic needs of the community during the Karatina region as mandated by Law no. 6 of 2018 concerning health quarantine. Meanwhile, the PSBB policy is considered not optimal in handling this pandemic outbreak because it is considered unable to cut the spread of the Covid 19 virus.

Systamatic Investigation Of Mental Stress During Covid-19

Dr.Malini .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5542-5550

The way the health authorities convey information on the hazards, care, opportunities to take vaccines or the need for preventive measures to people in a pandemic can contribute to anxiety levels that decide if the current pandemic is effective or not. The current study is a systematic review analysis of the articles published on Metal stress during the COVID-19. The articles have been downloaded from the Scopus and WoS. PRISMA guideline have been used for the purpose of article selection.

Role Of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) Workers In Assam: An Analysis In The Context Of Coronavirus Disease Of 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Mouchumi Kalita; Gitika Borah; Minakshi Koch

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5275-5279

The whole world is fighting against the pandemic situation created by the outbreak of COVID-19. Health workers, all over the world, are rendering service by putting their lives at stake. Health workers of Assam are also working relentlessly. This study attempts to analyse the role of the Accredited Social Health Activist or the ASHA workers of Assam in the fight against this pandemic situation. They have been serving the community to save it from this pandemic. They have faced a number of challenges while delivering their service. An attempt has been made in the current study to understand those challenges and to understand their side of the story.


Dr.Elayakumar S.T; Dr. Anbumalar M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5752-5757

Although a viral infection begins in COVID-19, some patients have overly exuberant inflammation, leading to acute pulmonary injury and a condition of adult respiratory distress (ARDS). As IL-6 is a key role in the inflammatory response, in this single centre observatory study in all Covid-19 patients with a proven SARS-CoV-2 fast-pacing infection in order to escape ALI and ARDS we have assessed the effectiveness and protection of tocilizumab (TCZ). In this single centre The rate of mortality in 104 patients treated for COVID-19 was lower (5 · 8%). The percentage of patients treated with COVID-19 was 11% lower than in untreated patients who had our level of treatment alone and a marginally lower rate of mortality (6 percent ). The acute phase reagents, Ferritin, and liver protein releases were quickly diminished by TCZ. Slowly, D-Dimer declined. Relevant safety issues were not found. An early prescribing of IL6-R antagonists can be safe and successful for avoidance, ICU admission and more complications in COVID-19 patients with imminent hyperinflammatory reaction1.

The Emergence Of Mindfulness Acceptance Commitment For Psychological Enhancement During Covid-19 Pandemic

Nur Haziyanti Moahamad Khalid; Muhammad Idris Bullare @ Bahari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6081-6090

This paper aims to shed light on the conceptual framework of the emergence of Mindfulness Acceptance Commitment (MAC) training module for psychological enhancement during COVID-19 pandemic. This module known as MAC-COVID-19 is intended for providing knowledge of MAC to community in order to deal with stress symptoms caused by COVID-19 pandemic; provide systematic guidelines using MAC skills training; help community to maintain healthy mindset in response to the COVID-19 pandemic risk factors; and help community to achieve resiliency. The training contained in this module is based on self-help intervention. It is in line with the social distancing practiced by the community during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is hoped that this training module will benefit the community, helping them to deal with the psychological distress caused by the pandemic.

A Review Study On Contamination Rate Of Covid-19

Dr.Sanjayan R.D; Dr.Monisha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5481-5486

Outbreaks have arisen in civilization such as extreme acute coronvirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) in 2003, Eastern Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, Ebola virus in 2014, and today SARS-CoV-2. Although health care professionals are searching for a vaccine to mitigate the disease outbreak, environmental engineers need to consider the effect of the virus organisation in sewages, provided that viruses are documented for multiple days to survive in human faeces and wastewater conditions. Here, on the basis of a study of recent research on SARS-CoV-2 as well as past pandemic incidents, the debate will be conducted on questions about the on-courage virus in faeces and sewages of humans1,2. In order to deter unprecedented coronaviral spread 2019 (COVID-19) especially in developed countries, faeces and sewage-derived routes of transmission may be of significant significance as a result of the recorded environmental stability of coronaviruses. However, there have, up to now, been small numbers of experiments that have been identified with the SARS-CoV-2, also in human faeces. In prospective experiments, for example, an improvement in the number of samples, a study of the usefulness of procedures for viral viability analysis, a review of the medical records of patients and so forth are warranted and are still still in the probability of this dissemination.


Dr.Ashok Kumar A; Dr. Vellapandi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5652-5656

The 2019 pandemic of Corona Virus disease (COVID-19), caused by extreme acute coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exploded in 2020 and produced severe global socio-economic and public health challenges. A subset of patients were also diagnosed with diarrhoea as well as usual characteristics such as fever, toxin and dyspnea. However, there has been inadequate attention to the clinical characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19-associated diarrhoea1–3. The analysis discusses the occurrence, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, improvements in faecal viruses, forecasts and influences influential to diarrhoea associated with COVID-19. In patients with COVID-19, the occurrence of diarrhoea was registered between 2% and 49.5%. SARS-CoV-2 of ACE-2 expressing the small intestine epithelial cells, which causes local intestinal damages, was reported as the key cause of diarrhoea. This cell invasion may be a main factor in pharyngeal swab positive for the long duration of SARS-CoV-2 found in faeces. The related diarrhoea in these patients disrupts the bowel flora equilibrium and leads to a greater severity of diseases and a better forecast. Patients with positive fecal-nucleic acid testing and intestinal microflower diseases should be careful with COVID-19 induced diarrhoea, and design more appropriate prevention and care options for these patients.


Dr. Suresh R; Dr. Archana S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5332-5340

Latest proof shows that in humans, SARS-CoV-2 proliferates and fades symptomatic or asymptomatic infected individuals, the etioloidal agent that induces COVID-19. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 can be discharged and even opened through wastewater and sanitation systems on site. SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by the inhalation of polluted aerosols and goutlets in waste water plumbing systems in particular in heavily inhabited suburban areas in the case of faeces, waste water or wastewater systems on-site. Potential faecal-oral transfer has also been proposed along the human gut-wastewater diet spectrum. The detection in the human gastrointestinal tract, faeces, and untreated wastewater of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggests probable COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission 1–4. A second line of recent evidence is extracted from a series of experiments focused on an overview of shelled disease, indicating SARS - COV-2 is prone to facal oral transmission and has a rigid shell and low shell disorder. The transmission path between faecal and oral has also gained substantial interest lately as an alternate transmission pathway but there is still no epidemiological data to support this theory. There could be a fast propagation of the pandemic via several COVID-19 transmission pathways.


Tuychiev Alisher Zhuraevich; Rizaev Nurbek Kadirovich; Abdusalomova Nodira Bahodirovna; Tashkenbaeva Zarina Ulugbekovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1701-1726

Abstract:This article provides information on the impact of the pandemic on intellectual
property and its consequences, the activities of companies providing intellectual property
services in the context of the pandemic, the intellectual ecosystem.Also, this article is devoted
to the consideration of issues related to the creation of the intellectual property ecosystem
throughout the world, research and experimental developments, R&D expenses, as well as
accounting and assessment of inovation products. In the context of global globalization,
intellectual property objects are crucial in assessing the property of enterprises. However, the
methodology of analysis of intangible assets has not been comprehensivelypresented in
scientific works, therefore, this article developed a methodology for the analysis of intangible
assets, in particular the analysis of intellectual property.


Dr. Pon Meenakshi. P; Dr. Pirakatheeswari. P; Mr. Rajagopalan. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5674-5685

Ayurveda has enough potential and possibilities to be employed both for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. This will provide an important opportunity for learning and generating credible evidence. It is pertinent to reiterate that participation of Ayurveda in addressing the COVID-19 challenge in India should not remain limited and seen as the extension of healthcare services and support to bio-medical system. Indeed, with adequate monitoring and data keeping during the implementation, important lessons and research directions are likely to emerge on the management of increasingly frequent and virulent communicable diseases. Implementation of proposed action is likely to provide evidence-based insights strengthening the scope of Ayurveda beyond preventive health care and care for non-communicable diseases. This Paper dealt with how Brand recognition of Ayurvedic food products during pandemic period.


JV‟nsDr.Mahavir Prasad Sharma; Dr. Navid N Shah; JV‟ns Dr. Shaha Shabanam Rafik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1296-1302

Homoeopathy has to play major role in future of World’s health as the whole world
is worst hit by pandemic of CORONA VIRUS.Homeopathic prophylactic medicines are based
on the ability to prevent infective diseases & boost one’s immunity when chosen according to
the principle of similarity.This historicreview was the ground for evaluating the response to
treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics and also try to emphasize on future
role Homoeopathy.


Dr. Sankaralingam P; Dr. Vijaya Suriya R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5678-5686

In the scenery for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the early data has indicated a decline in presentation and an improvement in pre-hospital latency for acute patients with stroke or AMI,3,4 the condition in Michigan, but it is not clear how acute stroke and AMI (COVID-18) should be administered and how these are treated. In reported cases and deaths, COVID-19 has had a disproportionate effect on Black Americans. Blacks make up about 14 percent of the population in Michigan but 19 percent of cases of COVID–19 and 36% of the deaths by October 22, 2020.5 The rise in the incidence of pre-hospital delay among Black Americans which further worsen established racial disorders6 compared with their white counterparts. We wanted to use a quick appraisal methodology in order to advise existing and prospective public health camps, both locally and globally, because of the pressing repercussions for clinical and public health.

Perception Of Dental Students Towards Online Classes.

Aditi Chopra; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2461-2474

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them.


Sheetal Kumari; Dr. L. Keerthi. Sasanka; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Visalakshi Ramanadhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1673-1682

Influenza is an infectious disease caused by Influenza virus. Symptoms may include- fever, cough, headache, sore throat muscle and body pain and fatigue. These symptoms begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. Old age people and children are at great risk due to this virus. Complications of influenza may include viral Pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia sinus infections and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. Influenza spreads around the world in yearly outbreaks, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 290,000 to 650,000 deaths. Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans : Type A, Type B, and Type
C. Type D has not been known to infect humans, but is believed to have the potential to do so. In this present study, data was collected and was verified using a standard software. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS software and representation was done using pie charts and graphs. Data was entered and verified using a standard computer software. Type of analysis used was chi square. It was concluded that a maximum number of awareness was shared about the influenza, its causes, symptoms and risk factors associated with it.


E. Dhivya sri,; A. Jothi Priya; Hannah R; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2210-2221

To investigate the awareness about pandemic disease between both rural and Urban populations.Self - administered questions were prepared. The questions were distributed in Google forms and hundreds of participants participated. The statistical data was analysed.Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate awareness regarding an infectious respiratory illness (45% close), risk of pandemic (42.3%), available vaccines (52.3%), majority of participants (82%) would pandemics cause sudden, widespread morbidity and mortality as well as social political and economic disruption.Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of pandemic disease both Urban and rural population still, active interventions are required in all areas of pandemic not only to improve their knowledge and awareness regarding pandemic between both rural and Urban population adults also.


Aditi Chopra; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1506-1519

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them.


S. Shreenidhi; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 486-491

Multivitamins are directly intaken supplements that are believed to increase human health. Multivitamins thrive in providing a stable health and easier way. The urge to meet the growing population, the need to provide them with the at most health benefits has brought in the development of multivitamin supplements. The consumable products are a combination of minerals and vitamins that are packed under one capsule to bring about the health needs satisfaction. These multivitamins are consumed at variable high levels without understanding its underlying mechanism it has on health thereby the importance in the role of health is a must for which a thorough search was done in the database like Google scholar, research gate, PMC using keywords “multivitamin”,”role of multivitamin “, “general public knowledge”, pandemic situation. Articles with similar data were collected and added to the current study. It is important to know the role, consumption forms, attitude of the general public towards multivitamins especially during cases of pandemic to aslo create awareness on the side-effects caused by the intake of multivitamins under self prescribed methods


Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.


Trisha Sasikumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1360-1369

CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]. It has caused a lot of deaths worldwide and is growing uncontrollably. Many factors like public co-operation and handling of the government efficiently are responsible for control. AS new norms were formulated and observed, in this current COVID-19 pandemic, This study aims to find the perception of people on the takeaway message from this pandemic to any other upcoming similar scenario. A self administered questionnaire was prepared comprising about 9 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google sheets link. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data was collected and statistically analysed. The overall result was positive wherein the public was co-operative about the lockdown and found ways to keep themselves occupied and they believe that the government of India was performing efficiently and that it is well-equipped and can handle any future pandemics. This study helps us understand the public perspective on the current, serious issue going on in the world.

Indonesian Student's Perception of Online Learning Activities in the Time of Pandemic

Ira Mirawati; Jimi Narotama Mahameruaji; Putri Trulline

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3645-3652

Dirumahaja or stay at home movement is thought the most effective policy to break the chain of Covid-19 transmission. People cannot do nearly allactivities, including formal education, together anymore . However, in fact, the ongoing onlinelearning has itw own advantages and disadvantages. This research aims to describe student’s experience with online learning. This study used online survey as data collection technique. Three hundred and fifteen students participated in filling the questionnaire.The result showed that 43.33% of students learnthrough LMS, 19.44% through video conferencing, and 37,22% through WhatsAppgroups and emails.As many as 39.21% of them felt uncomfortable, 37.25% normal, and 23.52% comfortable with it. Their discomfort is generally caused by tiring learning activities,i.e doing lots of tasks in spite of incomprehensive materials.


Subaraman M; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 549-560

The COVID-19 epidemic in China is a world health threat. So far now it is the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. Within weeks of the onset of COVID-19 the total number of cases and deaths exceeded those of SARS .SARS is similar to COVID-19, and SARS is a beta-coronavirus that can be spread to humans through intermediate hosts such as bats, though the actual route of transmission of COVID-19 is still debatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. It has been debated among the political leaders claiming that there is error from the part of WHO in giving a wrong impression at the golden hour where the pandemic could have been averted. A survey conducted with a self prepared questionnaire comprising 15 questions with a sample of 100 people of Tamil Nadu state. The questionnaire was prepared with questions comprising of covid 19 and who January WHO report, these questions help to determine perception on COVID-19 and WHO January report and that help to depict their knowledge and awareness on this topic and what is their critical perception of the role of WHO in handling the COVID pandemic. WHO plays a role in the process of updating the methods to prevent and cure the pandemic outbreak COVID-19. WHO is found to test the positive and negative responses shown by the possible methods present against COVID-19 and displays the most trusted method among the available methods.In the previous study, more than half of the participants are found to show high concern about swine influenza pandemic. In the present study, around 71% of the participants are aware of the COVID-19 pandemic and the controversial role played by WHO in spreading the COVID-19 pandemic. This study concludes that during this pandemic outbreak most of the participants are aware of the role of WHO in the process of controlling and updating information related to the global pandemic condition. It is evident from this study that people are sceptical about the role played by WHO in managing COVID-19

Health Effects OfCovid- 19 Across The Globe -A Review

SachinAditya B; JothiPriya. A; V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3150-3155

Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Millions of people were at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors, Covid- 19 being one of the most popular ones requiring more efforts to control its spread. During the epidemic period of coronavirus diseases, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children is very important for children’s oral and general health. In order to prevent the occurrence of cross-infection and epidemic spreading of Covid- 19 during dental practice, the recommendation to parents include making them hand hygiene at home and include proper oral care habits. Covid-19is a global human disaster presented with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. According to the cross-sectional study, two weeks after the occurrence of Covid-19 in chin almost 40% of the affected youth were proven to have psychological problems, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of Covid-19. Person to person transmission of Covid-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments, Extensive measures to reduce person to person transmission of Covid- 19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak.


Vindhiya varshini; VN.P. Muralidharan; Jayalakshmi , Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1769-1775

Viruses are Submicroscopic infectious agents that replicate and grow only inside the living cells of an organism. These viruses are important especially when they are capable of infecting humans. Such diseases are called zoonoses. Viral zoonoses include Lassa fever, Ebola fever,SARS,Avian flu etc.The aim of this study is to present a short review of recent literature available on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. A detailed study is done by reviewing several articles on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. Thorough search of articles was carried on the databases Pubmed and Google scholar.Viruses continue to be a major threat in both endemic and pandemic forms.Early diagnosis and treatment plan to be implemented, as it continues to be a major health threat and becomes worse day-by-day. Hence Knowledge and awareness needs to be initiated and implemented.

Extroverts And Quarantine A Survey

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; V.Vishnu Priya; A. Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2772-2788

Based on how people mingle with the society they can be classified as introverts,extroverts and ambiverts.Extroverts are people who are basically more active socially and gain attention.Introverts are people who don’t get mingled so much and they stay in a very small circle,they just live to show that they exist.Ambiverts are people who are not extroverts or introverts,they adapt and be how they have to be in places.This study is to to know about the mindset of extrovert individuals at this time of lockdown and quarantine. A self structured questionnaire containing 19 questions was circulated through online google forms link.The survey population contained 100 people.The responses obtained were statistically analysed in SPSS software and the results were depicted in the form of pie charts and graphs.The overall result shows that it is getting tougher day by day for the extroverts to stay home during this lockdown in quarantine as they usually weren’t this ideal.Hence this study can be used to plan for tasks that could keep these extroverts engaged and make it easy for them to abide by the laws in times of national emergencies and pandemics.

Attitude Of Family Members Of Health Care Workers During Covid- 19 - A Questionnaire Survey

Harita Ravikumar; V. Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2665-2680

Objective: Coronavirus is a retrovirus first found in Wuhan, China. The airborne spread of the coronavirus has created a pandemic all across the globe and various had implemented social distancing and quarantine periods to limit the spread. Doctors nurses and other social helpers who deliver services to the sick and ailing people either directly or indirectly fall under the category of healthcare workers. Healthcare workers are more vulnerable to coronavirus disease. Medical workers are unwillingly quarantined in the hospitals where they do not have another choice and conventional protection such as masks and gloves are not completely effective. This pandemic had a major impact as there was decline in the financial and social conditions. The aim of the analysis was to assess the attitude of family members of healthcare workers during COVID-19.
Materials and method: The present study population consisted of family members of healthcare workers in the South Indian population through an online Setting. The study design was a questionnaire based cross sectional study, conducted in 2020 and approval was obtained from the scientific review board. Self administered questionnaire was prepared pertaining to the topic and circulated through an online google forms link.
Statistical analysis: The results obtained from the survey were analysed using SPSS version 22. The statistical analysis was descriptive statistics to summarise the demographic data and chi square analysis to summarise the survey data.
Result: The survey found that the majority had healthcare workers as their family members and they had a positive attitude towards their work and felt proud. The family members were sometimes forced to follow hygiene measures and were regularly tested for 
the presence of coronavirus. At the same time the healthcare workers were also under physical and mental stress which in turn affected their family members.
Conclusion: Family members' attitudes have an influence on healthcare workers who work everyday in this pandemic situation. Awareness in relation to maintenance of hygiene among family members healthcare workers needed to be enhanced