Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Vitamin D


Study of Vitamin D Status in Children Aged 1 Month to 5 Years Admitted With Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Medical Center

Lakshmi Aparna Devi V V, Gopireddy Silpa, Rahul Teja G, Mahaboob Basha Kallur, Sridivya Uppatla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3741-3747

Background: To determine the impact of vitamin D status on the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in children of age 1 month to 5 years.
Materials and Methods: This case control study was conducted from September 2020 to September2022 in children admitted to Pediatric Care Intensive Unit (PICU) Mamata Academy of Medical Sciences Hospital.Out of total 150 study participants, 75 children with new onset pneumonia were taken as cases and 75 healthy children who were matched for age and sex were taken as controls. All children with pneumonia were admitted and categorized  according to Revised WHO (2014) guidelines .Serum vitamin D levels were sent. As per recent Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) recommendations, Serum Vitamin D levels < 12ng/dl were taken as deficient levels, 12-20ng/dl as insufficient levels and > 20ng/dl as sufficiency level1.
Results: Our study showed a correlation between hypovitaminosis D and pneumonia. We found that hypovitaminosis D was significantly associated with pneumonia compared to healthy controls and we also found that all cases with severe pneumonia had significantly lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls.
Conclusions: In our study, we conclude children with lower vitamin D levels are at increased risk for acquiring pneumonia and also are at increased risk of developing severe pneumonia. We conclude to consider vitamin D supplementation in children younger than 5 years to reduce the risk of acquiring pneumonia, although larger RCTs are required to support this

STUDY OF VITAMIN D IN CHILDRENS UPTO THE AGE OF 18 YEARS

Dr Haseeb Ul Haq ,Dr Raghunath S.V, Dr Sushma.V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2876-2881

Objectives:1) To determine the Vitamin D in children up to age of 18 years
Methods: A prospective observational study was done from June 2019-Feb 2020 from 0 to 18 years of children’s
Results: Severe Vitamin D deficiency may cause rickets in infants and children However, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent, and it is associated with falls or frac­tures. It has been observed that maximum children with rickets were breastfed, breast milk contains less vitamin D
Conclusion: Vitamin D is an essential nutrient not only important in bone health but also beneficial to many other systems. Therefore, Pediatricians should provide information to patients who are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency on how to get sufficient dietary or supplemental vitamin D.

Comparison of vitamin D3 levels in normal, overweight and obese individuals.

Mahesh Poojeri, , Manisha Biswal, Suraj Rao H, Bhanukumar M, Akash Duragkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 531-538

Obesity is considered as a global epidemic. It is associated with risk of multiple health problems. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in India. Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly associated with insulin resistance, type 2 DM and CVD, conditions also commonly linked with overweight and obesity.
Aims:
Comparison of vitamin D3 levels in normal, overweight and obese individuals without comorbidities.
Settings and Design:
Cross sectional observation study
Methods and Material:
189 eligible individuals were enrolled, divided into 3 groups based on BMI- normal, overweight, obese according to guideline for Asian population. Excluding secondary obesity. Blood samples for vitamin D measurement and anthropometric measurements were taken.
Statistical analysis used:
Comparison among different BMI categories will be done using ANOVA (Analysis of variants) followed by post hoc comparison.
Results:
Our study revealed that Hypovitaminosis D was most common in the obese and subjects with central obesity. Overall 64.6% had Vitamin D deficiency, 22.2% had insufficiency, only 13.2% had normal vitamin D. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 68% of subjects with central obesity as compared to 32% without central obesity.
Conclusions:
In our study there was hypovitaminosis D in all 3 groups, but the mean level of 25(OH) D was very low in obese and overweight individuals without comorbidities and hypovitaminosis D directly proportional to the central obesity. Overall vitamin D deficiency is present in even normal individuals.

SERUM 25(OH) VITAMIN D LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

Ali Hanif Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz Shamshad, Dr Shiny Teja Kolli, Dr Praveen Kumar Komminni, Usman Ismail, Dr Amit Bhalla, Dr Immanuel Raju Tullimalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 40-44

Background: The present study was undertaken for evaluating serum vitamin D levels and its relation to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials & methods: A total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients was obtained. Clinical examination was carried out in all the patients and data was recorded. assessment of peripheral neuropathy was done by neuropathy disability score (NDS) and nerve conduction studies. The NDS was established by bilateral examination of the pin–prick sensation, temperature sensation, vibration test, and Achilles tendon reflex. Serum levels were obtained and vitamin D levels were evaluated using auto-analyser. Correlation of vitamin D levels was done using auto-analyser. All the results were recorded and analysed using SPSS software.
Results: DPN was present in 56 percent of the patients. Mean vitamin D levels among the patients with and without DPN was 19.12 ng/ml and 32.95 ng/ml respectively. While analysing and comparing statistically, significant results were obtained.
Conclusion: Significant correlation exists between DPN and serum vitamin D levels among type 2 diabetic patients.

A Study on Association of Vitamin D Status and Thyroid Function among Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bihar

Manish Kumar Sinha, Madhu Sinha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1014-1022

Vitamin D is an important element for skeletal health and it may also affect extraskeletal
health such as association with autoimmune diseases. Inclusive studies in have reported
an association between thyroid autoimmunity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Therefore, in
the present study, we examined the relationship between serum TSH levels and vitamin D status
among patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on 500 Patients
was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Patna Medical College & Hospital, Patna,
Bihar from January 2021 to December 2021. The study included patients who were diagnosed
with T2DM and were 20 years or older. Exclusion criteria were known hepatic or renal disease,
metabolic bone disease, malabsorption, hypercortisolism, pregnancy and medications influencing
bone metabolism. The serum concentration of 25-OHD was measured by competitive protein
binding assay using kits (Immunodiagnostic, Bensheim, Germany). Glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c) was measured by the high performance liquid chromatography method (Bio-Rad
Laboratories, Waters, MA, USA). TSH levels between 0.22-4.2 mIU/L were regarded normal.
The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. The statistical analysis was
conducted with SPSS version 23.0 for Windows. Results: A total of 500 participants were
included in this study. Average age of the study population was 47.6 ± 11.2 years (Table 1).
VDD was detected among 52.7% of the study population. Among 8.4%, TSH was lower than
0.22 mIU/L and in 70.2%, TSH was within normal reference range. Abnormally high levels of
TSH (>4.2 mIU/L) were reported in 21.4% subjects. Conclusion: This study suggests positive
associations between the VDD and TSH level among T2DM patients.

Correlation Analysis of Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Level in Vitamin D Deficient Patients and Vit D Sufficient Patients

Ajinkya Murudkar, Sumeet Chadha, Jagjeet Singh Bahia, Arvinder Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1377-1382

Introduction: In the body, nutrients normally work together in a coordinated fashion.
The availability of certain nutrients influences the uptake of another nutrient in the
intestine. Magnesium and vitamin D are two critical nutrients that are required for
diverse organ physiologic activities.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between serum
magnesium and vitamin D and to compare the levels of serum magnesium in vitamin D
deficient patients and vit D sufficient patients.
Methods: Present study was a prospective, observational, cohort, single centric,
hospital-based study conducted over the duration of one year. Total 100 patients were
recruited in the study and relationship between Serum magnesium and vitamin D was
assessed. According to the levels of vitamin D the patients were sub-grouped into three
categories: Normal: Vitamin D >= 30ng/ml (10 patients), Insufficient: Vitamin D >= 20
and <=30 ng/ml (12 patients), and Deficient: Vitamin D <= 20ng/ml (78 patients).
Results: Vitamin D in normal group was 54.68 ± 8.965, in insufficient group was 25.79 ±
2.842 and in deficient group was 7.704 ± 3.909. The difference between three group was
significant. Magnesium in normal group was 1.572 ± 0.1098, in insufficient group was
1.603 ± 0.1014 and in deficient group was 1.625 ± 0.1092. The difference between three
group was not significant. Correlation analysis of Vitamin D and magnesium revealed a
negative correlation in normal group (r= -0.3561), and a positive correlation in
insufficient group (r=0.1277) and deficient group (r=0.01423).
Conclusion: Based on serum magnesium levels, the research can assess the need for
mediational cost and unfavourable side effects associated with multitherapy with
vitamin D and magnesium, as per current clinical practise.

An observational study to assess the serum Vitamin D levels and Kellgren-Lawrence grading in patients of primary osteoarthritis

Dr. Sangeeta Khyalia, Dr. Ravinder Kumar Lamoria, Dr. Rahul Dhaka, Dr. Pramod Singh Chahar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 608-614

Aim: To assess the serum Vitamin D levels and Kellgren-Lawrence grading in patients of
Primary Osteoarthritis.
Materials and Methods: The present observational study was carried out on the patients
coming to the OPD of the Department of Orthopedics, SMS Medical College and Hospital,
Jaipur. All patients complaining of Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and willing to participate
in the study were interviewed for age, sex, history of inflammatory arthritis or any rheumatic
disease, complain of celiac disease & malabsorption syndrome or any history of intake of any
drug that might affect serum Vit D levels. After the successful running of Quality Controls
the clear serum obtained from patient’s serum was analyzed on Advia Centaur XP (for
Vitamin D & PTH) & fully automated chemistry analyzer Beckman Coulter AU 680 (for
routine biochemical parameters). Based on the serum biochemistry results, patients with
deranged RFT & LFT were excluded from the study & the Serum Vitamin D, PTH, Calcium
and Phosphorus levels of the patients with normal RFT & LFT were documented.
Results: In our study maximum number of patients (109, 41.44%) fell in the age group 51-60
years with age ranging from 37-70 years. Mean age is 55.37 ± 8.04 years. Male female ratio
was 0.81:1. Mean serum Vitamin D level is 18.27±8.34 ng/ml with range from 4.2-44.34
ng/ml. Maximum no. of patients were in the Vitamin D deficient group (148, 56.27%), 96
(36.5%) patients were Vitamin D insufficient while only 19 (7.23%) patients had Vitamin D
levels above normal range. Maximum number of cases were of grade 3 (90, 34.22%).
followed by grade 2 (82, 31.18%). Minimum no. of cases are of grade 0 (7, 2.66%) followed
by grade 1 (22, 8.36%). The mean Kellgren- Lawrence grading for the cases is 2.68 ± 1.01.
Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Osteoarthritis patients. But
this prevalence needs to be compared with the prevalence in general population by including
age & sex-matched healthy controls. The present study could be further taken in this
direction.

A study to assess the level of Vitamin D status and its association with the severity of the pneumonia

Syed Shah Sarmast, Rajendra Shinde, Priyanka More, SK Satpathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 822-827

Background: The effects of Vitamin D on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis have
already been well recognized. Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical
regulator of immunity, playing a role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems.
Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical regulator of immunity, playing a
role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems. Vitamin D deficiency has been
found to be associated with several immune-mediated diseases, susceptibility to infection and
cancer. Further elucidation of the role of Vitamin D in lung development and immune system
function may hold profound implications for the prevention and treatment of asthma.
Objective: To study the Vitamin D Status of children having severe pneumonia and to know
if there is any relation between Vitamin D levels and severe pneumonia.
Methodology: The present prospective study was conducted by the department of Pediatrics
at SCBMCH & SVVPGIP, Cuttack from October 2013 to October 2015 among the children
with the age group of 1 to 5 years of age who were admitted in the department with
complains of Pneumonia. A total of 80 children who were having severe and very severe
pneumonia diagnosed based on WHO ARI (acute respiratory tract infection) criteria admitted
to the SCBMCH & SVVPGIP (General, Pay ward & PICU) in the age group of 1 to 5 years.
Results: In this study, we found that 50% of the children among cases had vitamin D levels
in the deficiency range while 41.3% and in the insufficiency group while we had 8.8% of the
children in the sufficiency group as compared to the healthy controls 20(71.4%) among 28
belongs to sufficient age group, 5(17.9%) to insufficient group and 3(10.7%) to the deficient
group. One significant finding in this study was that out of the 27 children in the sufficiency
group none of them were there in the very severe pneumonia group which suggests as the
Vitamin D levels Increases the severity of the condition decreases.
Conclusion: In this study, we found that Vitamin D levels were related to severity of the
disease as there were no children in the sufficiency group having very severe pneumonia.
Hence we can say as the levels of Vitamin D falls the severity of pneumonia Increases.

A Hospital Based Comparative Study to Evaluate the Association of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections with Serum Vitamin-D Levels in Children Between 2 Months to 5 Years of Age

Priyanka Singh, Abender Singh Maanju, Monisha Sahai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5789-5796

Background: Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in the skeletal system and
calcium homeostasis; the deficiency of which causes rickets and osteoporosis. There is
growing evidence that vitamin D also contributes positively to pulmonary health.
Vitamin D deficiency is a common and important nutritional deficiency in children in
India. Clinical and subclinical vitamin D deficiency in children has been reported to be
a significant risk factor for severe acute respiratory tract infection. The aim of this
study to compare the evaluation of the association of acute respiratory tract infections
with serum vitamin-D levels in children between 2 months to 5 years of age.

Analysis of the Association Between Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Mortality in Severe Septic Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Ashok Parmar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10996-11000

Background: Pathophysiologically, vitamin D deficiency has been related to inflammation
and immune dysfunction, which may be the potential reason for the increased susceptibility
of the individual to severe infection or sepsis. The present study was conducted to analyze the
association between serum vitamin D concentration and mortality in severe septic patients.
Materials and Methods: Whole blood collected was placed into the tubes containing
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an anticoagulant. After completion of samples, the
concentration of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 was measured by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was
used for data analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: In the present study a total of 250 patients were included in which 110(44%) were
females and 140(56%) were males. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in critically ill
subjects with sepsis was 100% (250/250). 32% patients with non-severe sepsis,16% with
severe sepsis, and 48% with septic shock. Patients suffering from severe septic had lower
levels of vitamin D compared to those with septic shock and non-severe sepsis. 12.5%
patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50% patients with septic
shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.
Conclusion: 12.5% patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50%
patients with septic shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.

Study of prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and its association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases among the doctors of Belagavi City, India

Vilas Honnakatti, Pratap Budhya, Shubham Malawadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2820-2825

Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency has been studied among various Indian populations with conflicting results. There is a paucity of data connecting the link between Vit D deficiency among the doctors who are particularly at risk of developing and causes of increase in insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Also, the association between Vit D deficiency and diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases is unclear. Given these observations, we would like to study the prevalence of Vit D deficiency among the doctors of Belagavi city of India.
Materials and Method: It was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted by the department of General Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences Belagavi, during the period from April 2016 to March 2017. All the doctors residing in Belagavi city were included in the present study after meeting appropriate exclusion criteria. The detailed history, risk factors, and laboratory finding was noted. The informed consent was taken from each participant before inclusion in the study.
Results: 100 doctors aged between 40 to 70 years were studied. The male-to-female ratio was 62:38. Predominantly males were in the age range of 41-50 years of age. The mean age for men was 51 years with SD 6.36 years and for women were 49 years with SD 6.07 years. Cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes was seen in 58%, hypertension in 63%, and hyperlipidemia seen in 33%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency observed in our study was 40%. There was a significant association between diabetes mellitus and hypertension in vitamin D deficiency compared with vit D sufficiency individuals. Vitamin d deficiency is commonly seen in all age groups, therefore, strategies such as increasing awareness, and educating the masses about adequate exposure to sunlight. The need for dietary rich in vitamin D sources and fortification of foods with Vitamin D.

Study of thyroid disorders in relation to bone biochemical parameters

Sangeeta Kapoor, Biswajit Das, Shikha Saxena, Umme Afifa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1263-1269

Background: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal skeletal development and normal bone metabolism in adults but can have detrimental effects on bone structures in states of thyroid dysfunction. Present study was aimed to study thyroid disorders in relation to bone biochemical parameters (Serum calcium, Serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D) at a tertiary care hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, cross sectional, observational study, conducted in patients with thyroid disorders, 18-70 years age, visiting Medicine OPD for their regular thyroid check-up, underwent estimation of thyroid hormones profile (TSH, T4, T3, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D.
Results: In present study 300 patients, majority were from 36-45 years (47.67 %), female (71 %) and had co-morbidities as diabetes mellites (18 %), hypertension (29.67 %). Majority were euthyroid (38 %) while others were Hypothyroid (28 %), Subclinical Hypothyroid (20 %) & Hyperthyroid (14 %). Serum calcium levels in euthyroid patients (8.634 ± 0.711mg/dl) were more than that of hypothyroid patients (8.125 ± 0.838 mg/dl ), Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (7.760 ± 00.81mg /dl) & Hyperthyroid patients (8.10 ± 1.213 mg/ dl ), difference was statistically highly significant (p- 0.001). Serum phosphorus levels in euthyroid patients (3.634 ± 0.421 mg/dl) were less than that in Hypothyroid patients (3.80 ± 0.854 mg /dl), Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (3.690 ± 0.422 mg/ dl ) & Hyperthyroid patients (4.021 ± 0.698g /dl), difference was statistically significant (p- 0.004). Serum ALP levels in euthyroid patients (112 ± 39.806 mg/dl) were less than that of hypothyroid patients (138.143 ± 86.695 mg /dl) & more than levels in Subclinical Hypothyroid patients (94.90 ± 15.442 mg/dl) & Hyperthyroid patients (106.143 ± 31.749 mg/dl), difference was statistically highly significant (p- 0.001). Conclusion: All patients with various thyroid disorders should be periodically evaluated for bone biochemical parameters (Serum calcium, Serum phosphorus, serum ALP & vitamin D) for early diagnosis of bone related disorders and0 to decide treatment protocol.

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF VITAMIN D LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Dr.Borra Dharmendhar, Dr.Ketham Veera Sudhakar, Dr.Laxmi Chapidi, Dr.Kankata Jhansi Rani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1323-1327

Introduction: Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which helps in increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. In humans, vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) are important compounds. Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of postmenopausal women attending gynaec OPD department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kakatiya Medical College and MGM hospital, Warangal from1st October 2021 to 30th September 2022 (1 year). Apparently healthy postmenopausal women without any prolonged medical illness like diabetes, thyroid, hepato-renal disease, malignancy, or without any surgical illness were selected. Besides patients on HRT, steroids, bisphosphonates or any drugs affecting bone metabolism, smokers and alcoholics were excluded.
Results: Out of total 206 postmenopausal women attending gynaec OPD during the study period, only 122 women were found eligible for study after satisfying inclusion-exclusion criteria. We divided these postmenopausal women according to their age into five years age-groups, starting from 50 years to 70 years of age. Most common age-group was 55-60 years accounting for 49% followed by 50-55 years age-group making 41%, thus together adding up to 90% of study population. This shows the authenticity of study population. Mean age of study group was 56.9 years.
Conclusion: There is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indian postmenopausal women, but our study shows no correlation between hypovitaminosis D and fasting blood sugar. Besides, the cut-off level for vitamin D deficiency should be reviewed in Indian population looking at the scenario of adequate sunlight exposure, to prevent it from overtreatment and also for dietary modification. The role of bioavailable 25(OH) vitamin D should be ascertained.

Correlation of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women.

Dr. Govind Kahar, Dr. Akanksha Srivastava,Dr. Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 731-735

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with
insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
medical college & hospital Rohini Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted. The
levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and insulin in
the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (

Evaluation of role of Vitamin D in grip strength in postmenopausal women withdistal radius fracture

Dr. Naveena Jyothi H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 846-852

Background: In the skin, under influence of ultraviolet radiation, 7-dehydrocholesterol is
photoconverted to provitamin D3, which is converted to Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). In the
serum, bound to a Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), Vitamin D3 is transported to the liver,
where it is hydroxylated to 25(OH)D3. In the kidneys, 25(OH)D3 is further metabolized to
1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)D3], the biologically active form of Vitamin
D.Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) is known to contribute to muscular function.
Material and Methods: In this comparative study, Two groups were formed, First group as a
case in which vitamin D was supplemented and second group as control in which Vitamin D
was not supplemented, both the group had 25 number of post- menopausal women who had
Vitamin D level between sufficient range (30-100ng/ml) and were treated with same mode of
treatment (closed reduction and Percutaneous K-wire fixation) for Distal end radius fracture.
Grip strength recovery (in %) was compared in both the group after a period of 6 months.
Results: Final grip strength recovery of all patients came out to be 67%, out of which, in
supplemented group it came out to be 73% while in non-supplemented group came out to be
60% with p value of statistically significance proving major difference in grip strength
recovery in % at 6 months in both the groups.
Conclusion:We concluded with our series that vitamin D supplementation significantly helps
in improving the grip strength recovery in Post-menopausal women after a Distal End Radius
fracture.

Correlation of vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women

Govind Kahar, Akanksha Shrivastava,Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 422-427

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with
insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
Medical College & Hospital, Rohini, Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted.
The levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and
insulin in the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) in the
study, whereas 67.9 percent of participants had an elevated parathyroid hormone level.
According to the study, vitamin D insufficiency (r=-0.64, p=0.01) had a significant negative
connection with the HOMA-IR. Increased PTH levels were shown to have a positive
correlation with HOMA-IR.
Conclusion: Women with PCOS who have high parathyroid hormone levels or vitamin D
insufficiency have a higher incidence of glucose intolerance.
If vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance are strongly linked, it may be possible to
treat insulin resistance by raising vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D status and its association with disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis in rural population of central India

Granth Kumar, Vidya Sagar Ram,Pankaj Kumar, Amit Varshney

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 648-652

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease
characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints,
leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Early rheumatoid arthritis is
defines as “RA with duration of disease/symptoms of disease < 6 month.”
Aim:To study serum vitamin D level in newly onset rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Methodology: It is a Case-control study, all patients fulfilling revised American College
ofRheumatology criteria/EULAR criteria(2010) for Rheumatoid Arthritis being
attended to in therheumatology clinic, Tools like Oral questionnaire, History &
Clinicalexamination,laboratory equipments will be used.Sample size is 45 cases and 45
controls, complying with inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Result: The study suggested that, mean value of Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)
of RA was 12.24±8.05 in cases and 2.89±0.83 in control, DAS28 Score was 4.24 ± 1.07 in
cases and 3.00 ± 0.37 in control, it showed statistically significant association between
serum Vitamin D3 level with CDAI and DAS28 Score in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Conclusion: The study results suggest that the inverse relationship between serum
Vitamin D levels and RA disease activity.

Serum levels of vitamin d and lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comparative study

Faizan-i- Asrar Nazki, Syyeda Anees,Haamid Bashir, Mohsin Wazir, Sara Mohammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 686-694

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent
endocrine illnesses in women of reproductive age. It affects around 5-10% of the world's
population. Irregular menstrual cycles, prolonged anovulation and hyperandrogenism
are all symptoms of the disease. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, gestational
diabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease may develop over
time.
Aim:To compare the lipid profile and vitamin D levels in women with and without
PCOS in relation to obesity and to determine the Luteinizing hormone[LH], Follicle
Stimulating Hormone[FSH], prolactin[prl] levels in women with PCOS in relation to
obesity
Method: A total of 152 subjects were taken for the study.76 PCOS patients were
identified ultrasonographically and clinically from November 2015 to July 2017, and 76
normal menstruatingwomen served as controls in the study conducted at Deccan
Medical College and Princess EsraHospital, Hyderabad. All the subjects were
categorized as obese or lean based on their BMI.
Results: In comparison to obese participants without PCOS, PCOS obese subjects had
higher TG and TC levels and lower HDL levels, according to the study. When
compared to lean subjects without PCOS, PCOS lean subjects had higher TG, TC, and
LDL values. The HDL levels of PCOS lean patients were observed to be lower than
those of lean subjects without PCOS. Vitamin D levels were also shown to be
considerably lower in PCOS patients (both obese and non-obese) than in healthy
controls.

Assessment Knowledge regarding Vitamin D deficiency among female adult attending the Primary Health clinic atMakkah, Saudi Arabia, 2021

Saud AbdulhaiGari, Wesaam Mohammad Jamal Ghafuri, Abeer Mohammed Noor Hosawi, Mohammed Abed Gurunfula

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3123-3137

Vitamin D deficiency is prevailing in Saudi Arabia. Recent national data indicated an inverse association between vitamin D status and coronary heart disease (CHD), which increases concerns about vitamin D deficiency as a serious public health problem. Therefore, the current study aimed to Assessment Knowledge regarding Vitamin D deficiency among female adult attending the Primary Health clinic at Makkah, Saudi Arabia, 2021. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest reported incidence of vitamin D deficiency in studies conducted worldwide. However, there has been very limited exploration of vitamin D related knowledge, attitudes and practices among female adult in Saudi Arabia. However, the case of vitamin deficiency is reported to increase in many female Saudi Arabia worldwide, especially in Saudi Arabia. Mothers, having adequate knowledge about vitamin D and its supplementation, may lead to possible lowering of the cases of vitamin D deficiency and its complications

Assessment of effectiveness of vitamin D supplements in the patients suffering from Alzheimer disease

Arghadip Das,Himani Jitendra kumar Suthar,Levis Abin Joy,Vinodh Boopalraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 878-881

Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of
dementia. The present study was conducted to assess effectiveness of vitamin D
supplements in the patients suffering from Alzheimer disease.
Materials & Methods:60 patients of Alzheimer disease of both genders were divided
into 3 groups of 20 each. Group I were prescribed memantine alone, group II were
prescribed vitamin D alone and group III were prescribed memantine plus vitamin D
for 6 months. Cognitive change with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was
assessed.
Results: Group I had 20 males and 10 females, group II had 12 males and 18 females
and group III had 16 males and 14 females. The mean MMSE score before treatment in
group I was 16.8 and after treatment was 16.4, in group II before treatment was 18.3
and after treatment was 17.5, in group III before treatment was 13.4 and after
treatment was 17.2. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Patients who took memantine plus vitamin D had a statistically and
clinically relevant gain in cognition as compared to memantine and vitamin D alone.

The association between neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Mohamed Omar Abdel Aziz; Prof. Dr. Amr Mahmoud Abdel Wahab; Prof. Dr. Rawhya R Elshereef; Dr. Hend Mohammed MonessAly; Dr. ReemMamdouh Abdel Salam Ali; Dr. Wael M Abdel- Ghany; Dr. Mahmoud Ragab Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1979-1991

Background/Aims:Some studies had suggested that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) levels grow with
the increase of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Recently, several studies found that vitamin (D)
deficiency can cause the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complication including neuropathy.The
aim of our study is to evaluate the association betweenNLR, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of
peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
Methods: In cross sectional study we selected a total of 60 T2DM patients.All patients underwent nerve
conduction study (NCS). Then we divided them according to the results into two groups, 45 patients with
DPN and 15 patients without DPN as a control group.DPN group wassubdivided according to NCS
results into three groups,11 patients with mononeuropathy,4 patients with mononeuropathy multiplex
and30 patients with polyneuropathy. We evaluated the effect of DPN in these patients as regarded NCS
results on HbA1c levels, NLR and vitamin (D) levels.

NEED OF VITAMIN D BEYOND BONE: A CONSISE REVIEW.

Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

Assessment of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among chronic liver diseases patients and its correlation with severity of liver diseases: An observational study

SPSingh, NitinSoni, SouravBansal, HarjeevanSingh Kalra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2284-2288

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent in almost half the
healthy population of developed countries. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) is not fully understood.Hence; the present study was
conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among chronic
liver diseases patients and its correlation with severity of liver diseases.Materials &
methods: A total of 50 patients with presence of chronic liver diseases were included.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. A Performa
was made and spectrum of clinical profile of all the patients was recorded. Blood samples
were obtained and serum vitamin D levels were obtained using auto-analyzer. Grading of
the patients was done using Child-Pugh Score grading. All the results were recorded and
analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 84 percent of the
patients. Vitamin D levels among patients with Grade A, Grade B and Grade C of Child-
Pugh score grade was found to be 32.36 ng/mL, 22.12 ng/mL and 16.48 ng/mL
respectively. Significant results were obtained while correlating Vitamin D levels with
Child-Pugh grade.Conclusion: Patients with chronic liver diseases have significantly
altered Vitamin D metabolism. Hence; Vitamin D deficiency directly correlates with
severity of disease.

KNOWLEDGE and AWARENESS of VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG the GENERAL ADULT POPULATION in BAHRAIN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Profile of Vitamin D and Interleukin-8 in COPD Exacerbation

Riswan Idris; Muhammad Ilyas; Erwin Arief; Syakib Bakri; A Makbul Aman; Haerani Ra-syid; Hasyim Kasim; Andi Fachruddin Benyamin; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1484-1494

Background: To determine the profile of vitamin D and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in COPD exacerbation.
Method: This research is an analytical study with a cross-sectional approach conducted at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from March-June 2020. Serum levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and IL-8 were measured using the ELISA method in 65 exacerbated COPD patients based on clinical examination, chest radiograph, & spirome-try. The exacerbation criteria were based on Anthonisen and divided into two groups ac-cording to the exacerbation frequency in the past year (frequent exacerbations was often ≥ 3 times/year, infrequent exacerbation < 3 times/year) and related to gender, age, nutrition-al status, smoking status based on the Brinkman index, and obstruction degree according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019.
Results: This study consisted of 65 exacerbated COPD subjects (62 men, 95.4%), with age of ≥ 60 years 73.8%, frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, 69.3%, vitamin D deficiency status of 76.9 %, and it was found to be significantly lower (15.1 ng/ml) at the frequent ex-acerbations of ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). The means of IL-8 levels were 187.48 +68.30 ng/L and found to be significantly higher (206.7 ng/L) in the frequent exacerbations ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). In all subgroups according to gender, age, nutritional status, smok-ing status, and obstruction degree, there was a tendency for the lowest vitamin D and higher IL-8 in the frequent exacerbations of ≥3times/year. Conclusion: Vitamin D levels were found to be the lowest and IL-8 was higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, compared to those with the infre-quent exacerbations of < 3 times/year.

ASSESSMENT THE KNOWLEDGE REGARDING VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG FEMALE ADULT ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CLINIC AT MAKKAH , SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN IN 2019: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Sammar Ali M Jalal, Mohammed Ahmed Omar Almahmudi, Amal abdulkader habhab, Mohammad Hassan Saqeer Alhothali, Nader Mohammad Alharbi, Ahlam Saleem Almagnoni Wajdi Bashah Khider Alnadwi, Nada Mohammed Saaed Alharbi, Rami Husein Saad Almasri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 139-149

Background
      Vitamin D is one of the major vitamin and very essential for maintenance of normal growth and development of strong bones. It is often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" because it can be synthesized in the body from the ultraviolet rays provided by the sun. Vitamin D is known to have essential roles in the human body. However, the case of vitamin deficiency is reported to increase in many adult worldwide, especially in Saudi Arabia. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with numerous chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes type 1 and 2. It is currently estimated that one billion people suffer from vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Sunlight is the main and natural source of vitamin D and most foods contain very little amount of it. The main action of vitamin D is to help calcium and phosphorus in our diet to be absorbed from the gut.
 Aim of the study: The study’s aim was to assess the knowledge regarding vitamin D deficiency ​among female adult attending the primary health clinic at Makkah at Saudi Arabia
Methodology: Across sectional descriptive study was conducted among female adult attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia city, during the October to December, 2019. Our total participants were (150).  Results: Major findings of the study were (38%) adult women were in the group of age between 25 to 35 years. The majority of the women (84.67%) “married” status. The majority of the women were (49.33) secondary level of education, regarding chronic disease, most of the mothers in the study were found to have no chronic disease were (62.00%). The income level of (56.0%) of the respondents ranged average, the majority of the women were (42.0%) Sources of knowledge doctor.
 Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among the various age groups in our country due to various factors. So, Awareness programmes have to be conducted to make the general public including the females aware of the vitamin D, its deficiency, causative factors and the preventive measures. So this study was done this study was conducted assessment the knowledge towards vitamin D deficiency, sun exposure, supplementation in a sample of adult female attending the primary health clinic at Makkah, Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian.