Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Menopause

Menopause related quality of life among females of rural field practice area of a tertiary care centre in Jaipur

Dr. Niti Gahlot, Dr. Uttam Kumar, Dr. Archana Paliwal, Dr. Abhilasha Maharrshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 572-579

Background: The various types of post-menopausal symptoms progressively worsen the well-being of
women and affect, consequently, their quality of life (QOL) on a daily basis.
1. To determine the prevalence of poor quality of life among post-menopausal women of rural area.
2. To assess the factors responsible for the poor quality of life among post-menopausal women of rural
Methods: A community based cross sectional observational study was carried out among 100
postmenopausal females aged between 40-60 yrs of age. The standardized Menopause-Specific Quality
of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were
Results: Among the study participants, the most common symptoms in the physical domain were
“decrease in physical strength” (88%), “decrease in stamina” (81%) and “feeling tired and worn out”
(81%). Urinary incontinence was seen in 26% of women. In the psychosocial domain, “the feeling of
having the ability to accomplish less than previously” was the predominant one (78%). Among the
symptoms of sexual domain, “decrease in sexual desire” was the most common complaint (67%). Among
vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes were present in only 35% of participants. Those having low physical
activity were exposed to more postmenopausal symptoms as compared to those having moderate and
severe physical activity.
Conclusion: Menopause is associated with decrease in QOL. Awareness regarding menopausal
symptoms will lead to improvement in QOL by early recognition.

Impact of sex hormone fluctuations on functional health status and menopause rating scale among postmenopausal RA patients

Essam Tawfik Atwa; Hisham Mohamed Omar; Asmaa Amin Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2390-2400

Introduction: Women with RA have higher grades of disease activity and more declines in health status than men with RA; this recommends a relationship between estrogen and disease activity and severity.
Aim: Our aim was to detect the effect of sex hormone fluctuations and menopause on functional disability and quality of life of postmenopausal RA patients.


Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa; Marwan Q AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 96-104

The research dealt with the study of secondary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea and its relationship to the physiological and hormonal status of women, which is one of the gynecological diseases with serious effects on women with this disease, because cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, infertility and mental state disorder are among the most important complications of this disease. . The study was conducted on (40) serum samples from Secondary Amenorrhea patients after their condition was diagnosed through clinical and laboratory tests. The ages of the patients ranged between (12-42) years. The levels of the hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog were measured, and the results were the presence of high significant differences (P <0.05) when measuring the level of hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog in the blood serum of the patients with secondary menopause and compared them with their concentrations in the control group. There were high significant differences (P <0.05) in serum levels of LH, FSH, and E2 hormones. The presence of high levels of the hormone LH, FSH, in the serum of most patients. The presence of a decrease in the levels of the hormones E2 and Prog in the serum of the majority of patients


Dr S.Aafiya Reshma; Dr. L. Malathi; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr.E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1798-1803

Menopause is a physiological activity in women which brings changes at both systemic and oral level. At old age, oral hygiene and oral health becomes a major problem and the dentist are the ones who find those changes in the body throughout the menopause. The gums and teeth are more prone to changes in hormones that take place before menopause and slows down body’s capacity to fight back minor infections too. This article reviews about dry mouth during menopause which is of major concern which causes xerostomia.

Self-reported menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal women- A cross-sectional study in an urban slum of Odisha, India

Mrs saswatika beura; Dr lipilekha patnaik; Manisha sahu; Sumitra pattanaik; Trilochan sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 849-859

Introduction: Women live more than one-third of their life in their menopausal period. Syndrome of the psychological, physical as well as vasomotor together with sexual problems is common in this age. In Indian scenario, menopausal health need is a priority among slum women. 
Objective: To identify the commonly reported menopausal symptoms alongside linked threats to urban slum women. Methods: The study has been taken based upon a cross-sectional population conducted among 104 postmenopausal women in an urban slum during September and October 2019. Women who had menopause more than 12months were inducted in the study. Data have been collected by using predesigned and pretested schedule and tested upon the modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) . Data analysis has been conducted by means of SPSS version 20 software.
Results: In this study mean age was 50.92 ± 3.2 years, among them all were Hindu, 75% belonged to general caste and 50% had nuclear family. The age group of 47.29± 2.98 years is considered for menopause. The most frequent symptom described was joint / muscular discomfort by 94.2% women, followed by irritability, anxiety, and corporeal as well as mental exhaustion (92.3%). Hot flushes were reported by 63.5% respondents. Most of the participants (61.5%) reported moderate symptoms followed by mild (19.2%). Physical activity was low among 63.5% participants. MRS score was significantly higher among women more than 50 years of age, literate women, middle socioeconomic group, women who had attained menopause after 50 years, who had attained menopause naturally, exposed to second hand smoke and women with comorbidities (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The occurrence of menopausal indication is high and interventions should be targeted to reduce these symptoms. 

Comparative Study of Menopausal Age And Symptoms With Respect To Prakriti In Rural And Urban Region Of Wardha District

Dr. Priyanka P. Pohane; Dr. Priti R. Desai; Dr. Gaurav Sawarkar; Dr. Amol Deshpande; Dr. Rajni Gurmule; Dr. Manoj Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1978-1988

Background :Menopause is an important step of women’s life. It is the permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of follicular activity The average age of menopause is 50years.In Ayurvedal iterature the term Rajonivrutti is used for menopause and the menopausal age mentioned is 50 years .The present study was conducted to compare the menopausal age and menopausal symptoms with respect to prakriti in rural and urban areas. Material and Methods: This survey based observational study included 400 females from rural and urban region of Wardha district aged between 40-60years who had naturally attained menopause. The females attaining surgical menopause and those with PID and serious systemic disease were excluded. Information was collected in structured case record sheet with all relevant attributes. Statisticalanalysis was done using SPSS 20. Result : In rural region 75% of participants attained their menopause during the age 46-50yr followed by 10.5% females in age 51-55yr.In urban region 71% attained menopause in the age 51-55yr followed by 28% in the age of 45-50yr Menopause at the age of 35-40yr in age group of 35-40 was attained by only 5.5% from rural region .No specific pattern of symptoms in relation to the particular Prakriti was found neither in rural nor in urban region. Conclusion:. The study concluded that menopause occurred at an earlier age in rural population as compared to the urban region. The association between menopausal symptoms and Prakriti was found to be non-significant