Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : E.coli

Antibiotic resistance- A review

Dr.Riddhi Tandon, Dr. Suresh Bhambhani .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 83-104

Background: Through the selection of resistant mutants, activation of latent resistance mechanisms, or acquisition of resistance determinants genes, bacteria may become more resistant after exposure. All of these processes may be sped up by antibiotic pressure.Objectives: To evaluate appropriate investigations and ascertain the condition of antibiotic resistance. Methods: After a thorough search of the online journals, 103 documents were found in total, and 54 of the papers were initially chosen. Then, 22 similar/duplicate articles were removed, leaving 41 investigations that were initially available. After reviewing the submissions' abstracts and titles, 17 more articles were disqualified. Finally, 21 papers that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion requirements were selected, including study articles and control trials.Results: All the 21 articles reported extensive antibiotic resistance to antimicrobial therapies, especially in cases of gram-negative bacterium. Conclusion: Finding strategies that can effectively lessen the burden of bacterial resistance towards antibiotics is the primary concern, whether they are applied in a variety of settings or are precisely tailored to the resources available and the most effective pathogen-drug combinations in a given environment.


Shaymaa Jaber Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3235-3241

The current work aims to determine the effect of metformin on some antibiotics' efficacy against some bacterial isolates; moreover, determination of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. Six bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus viridansProteus mirabilisPseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E.coli) diagnosed by VITEC-2-Compact. Several metformin concentrations (100 ug, 200 ug, 300 ug, 400 ug and 500 ug) were prepared and tested for the sensitivity of selected isolates to determine the best inhibitory concentration of bacteria. Used the disc diffusion method to determine the antimicrobial activity of metformin alone and when combined with antibiotics against all isolates after preparing MIC for each antibiotic. FIC index was measured by checkerboard assays of a combination of antibiotics with metformin to determine the types of reactions. Metformin showed the best antibacterial action against the bacterial strains at a 500 μg/ml concentration, it's increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic in inhibiting bacterial isolates by the desk diffusion method with a significant difference at (P <0.05). About the FIC index, found that most of the interactions were partial synergies of 50%, metformin was recorded with amikacin as the highest reaction (partial synergy). Synergy interaction recorded in 11.11% of the tests, while additive and indifferent reactions was recorded similar rates at (16.16%), and only 5.55% of outcomes were indeterminate. Importantly, there were no antagonistic interactions between metformin and the used antibiotics. E. coli was the most bacteria that reported a synergistic reaction when metformin was combined with amikacin and gentamicin


Fatima Mustafa Al-najar; Qanat Mahmood Atiyea; Adnan F. AL-Azzawie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 75-87

Background and Objective: E.coli bacteria is the common cause of the urinary tract infections as it is responsible for about 90% of cases of urinary tract infections and it is considered one of the main problems in hospital infected. So, this study aimed to assess the genetic effects of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, alcoholic pomegranate Granada extract and alcoholic Trigonella foenum on coliform bacteria. Materials and methods: The bacteria were isolated from urinary tract infections, after they were diagnosed using an optical microscope and conducting biochemical tests, then exposed to the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, and alcoholic extract of pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum. Genomic DNA was extracted for all samples and Random amplified polymorohic DNA - Polymerase chain reaction (RAPD- PCR) marker was carried out using five randomprimers. Results: The results of RAPD-PCR profiles shown thate xposed to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim) and alcoholic extracts (pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum) lead to the disappearance or appearance new bands compared with non-exposed samples, and the highest rate of polymorphisim for all each treats and primers in sample 3 was 105.88% where the ratio % GTS for all treats and primers is 10% in the same sample. Conclusion: All treatments caused genetic changes in the DNA of E.coli bacteria cells especially the pomegranate Granada which gave the highest effect than the rest of the treatments, this indicates its efficiency in treating bacterial infections

An Action of Superlow Power EHF Radiation on Some Microbes in Vitro, Human Erythrocytes and the Functional Status of a Person

Felix A. Pyatakovich; Tatyana I. Yakunchenko; Kristina F. Makkonen; Olga V. Mevsha; Olga N. Moryleva; Sergio Stagnaro; Simone Caramel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 110-114

This paper is devoted to the analysis of advanced scientific research about the role of
superlow intensity EHF effects on biological objects, including people. In this
investigation was utilized Gunn diode with the flow of electromagnetic radiation
superlow intensity of 10 μW and frequency 40-43 GHz. The estimation of the influence
of the millimeter radiation on staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, and the native blood has
been performed. It was shown the death of staphylococcus is associated with the
frequency of modulation signals of the radiation. The EHF irradiation of bacterial
suspension for one minute leads to the short-term disorders of motor function of
E.coli. Exposure by EHF of the super weak intensity causes inhibition of red blood cell
function, which manifests itself in a decrease in their ability to aggregate. Our
experimental data also prove that intake of water activated by means of EHF radiation
modifies the functional status of patients.

Bacteriological Quality Of Drinking Water That Sterilized By Reverse Osmosis system Al Nasiriyah City


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4238-4247

The treated water by reverse osmosis is widely used as one of the types of drinking water, and for the correlation of this water with the health of individuals, this study was aimed at detecting the bacteriological quality of this water. Samples were collected based on three drinking water supply stations using reverse osmosis system . three samples ( from the same station ,from water seller that supplied by station water , from houses that supplied by station water ) were collected per station per month, for the period from November 2017 to march 2018 .The bacteriological analyses were Heterotrophic plat count (HPC) ,Total coliform (TC) count and E.coli count . It was appeared , the high rates of numbers of HPC in all stations ,they registered 190 ,70 and 5×102 ( CFU / 100 ml). The rates of total coliform (TC)from same stations , as it reached 0 , 67 , 2×102 (cell / ml ) in stations respectively , houses recorded the highest rates of these bacteria for all stations 53 , 100 , 4 ×102 ( CFU / 100 ml) in A , B and C respectively . The rates of E.coli in RO treated drinking water samples that collected from the same stations were 0, 13,1×102 ( CFU / 100 ml). The higher numbers of E coli were appeared in houses for all stations , it registered 50,27 and 4 ×102 ( CFU / 100 ml) for stations A ,B and C respectively . Numbers of these indicators in most samples of RO treated drinking water exceeding the international standards. the number of bacteria that isolated from these water were 36 isolates that distributed to 27 ( 75%) Gram negative and 9 ( 25% ) Gram positive bacteria ,Klebsiella spp. was the more frequency isolate among Gram negative bacteria , and Enterococcus fecalis was the predominant among Gram positive bacteria.