Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Antibiotic


Dr. Swetha Munivenkatappa, Dr. Vasavi Mounika Sampathi, Dr. Srinivas MG, Dr. Kandregula Pavani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1040-1047

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common during pregnancy and must be identified and treated to prevent poor maternal and obstetric outcomes. This study aims to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in our antenatal clinic. The study also looks at any associated factors predisposing to the development of ASB, to identify the causative pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Methods: It is a hospital based observational study involving 100 pregnant women with no symptoms of UTI at various gestational age. ASB was identified by urine culture and sensitivity studies. Results: 15% of the participants were found to have ASB. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ASB based on age groups, number of pregnancies, gestational age or presence of anemia. Gram negative organisms were the cause of ASB in two thirds of cases. Escherichia coli is the most common isolate followed by Staphylococci. Gentamycin, cefotaxime and nitrofurantoin were the most efficacious of the antibiotics studied. Conclusion: ASB is quite prevalent in the pregnant population. E.coli continues to be the leading cause of ASB over the decades but Gram positive organisms are increasingly being recognized as pathogens responsible for ASB during pregnancy. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern differ widely among different study populations and antibiotic stewardship is a must for appropriate treatment and to prevent resistance development.


Abhishek Pathak, Ajay Pillai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 218-225

Aim: To evaluate the antibiotic knowledge, practise, and attitudes among Indian dentistry practitioners.
Material and methods: Dental professionals were the subjects of a descriptive cross-sectional research. The dentists were included in the sample because it was convenient for them to do so. Google forms were used to distribute the surveys to the participants, while those who couldn't be reached online were given paper copies of the survey. All forms were included in the research exclusively from dental professionals in India who gave their informed permission. Participants were guaranteed complete anonymity and data confidentiality.
Results:  A total of 100 dental practitioners participated in the research and completed the questionnaire, including 74 (74%) females and 26 (26%) men. Their average age was 27.58±3.69 years. More over half of the 52 participants (52%) said antibiotics helped them recover from colds and coughs. About 55 (55%) of participants believed that newer and more expensive antibiotics had no influence on effectiveness. Antibiotic resistance was known to around 91 percent of the population. Approximately 72 (72%) of participants disagreed that antibiotics were a safe treatment, while 75 (75%) disagreed that antibiotics were the first drug of choice in cough and sore throat. Antibiotic resistance was identified as an issue in India by the vast majority of participants (86%). Approximately 68 (68%) were opposed to maintaining antibiotic stockpiles at home. 55 (55%) of the 100 dentists polled prescribed antibiotics based on symptoms. Most dental practitioners administered antibiotics for intra and extraoral sinus drainage, severe facial edoema, dental trauma, pericoronitis, open extraction, and periapical abscess. Amoxicillin was the most popular medicine (69%) followed by Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25%) Almost every dentist has likely replied favourably to the request for a medical history.
Conclusion: Although dentists in the current research were found to have understanding of antibiotic prescription, it was found that there is an undeniable gap in training and perspective of dentists with respect to antibiotic recommendations. Therefore, dentists will need to improve their use of antibiotics by updating their procedures over time.

The Role of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Dr.Servishet Saraf, Dr.Suhail Masood, Dr.Monika Bhagatl, Dr.Neeraj koult

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1934-1939

Background: Laparoscopic surgery has rapidly gained wide spread acceptance for the
last couple of decades, yet it is marred with the occurrence of post-operative port site
infections. One of the better ways of tackling port site infection is its prevention. Hence
the present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of single dose antibiotic
prophylaxis vis conventional multidose antibiotic therapy in patients of low risk elective
laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Materials and Methods: The patients were divided in two groups, Group A and Group
B with 34 and 36 patients respectively. Patients were assessed for any post-operative
fever at frequent intervals for 24-48 hours and noted down and port sites were assessed
for any induration, discharge, erythema or tenderness.
Results: The age of the patients ranged from 19-55 years and 15-55 years in group A
and group B respectively. Three patients in each group developed low grade fever in the
post-operative period (day 1) that settled with paracetamol and didn’t merit further
evaluation. Two patients developed port site discharge with mild gaping at the
epigastric port site in group A. One patient developed port site discharge in group B.
The difference was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that the efficacy of the single dose antibiotic
prophylaxis is the same as the conventional multiple dose antibiotic prophylaxis

Antibiotic Resistance Among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli

Dr. Aarti Akhand, Dr. Ramanath Karicheri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4914-4919

Background & Method: The study is conducted with an aim to study Antibiotic resistance among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, targeted both male and female outpatients and inpatients presenting with symptoms and signs of UTI which include dysuria, polyuria, fever, nausea, and flank pain were sampled for this study. This study is done with an aim to study Antibiotic resistance among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli. Baseline demographic data including age, sex, level of education and risk factors such as catheterization, history of UTI, also out and in patients were also collected.
Result: Among the total 120 isolates, resistant to ≥2 drugs were recorded in 108 (90 %) of all uropathogens. Seventy seven (93.9 %) isolates of Gram-negative bacteria and 31(81.6 %) of Gram positive bacteria showed resistance to two or more drugs (Table 4). Resistance pattern of bacterial isolates to more than two antibiotics of patients (N = 120)
Conclusion: There is a need for continuous surveillance of antibiotic to the currently used antibiotics in management of urinary tract infections covering the entire Index Hospital . Index Hospital to enforce policies formulated by pharmacy and poison board to prevent misuse or underuse of antibiotics by giving prescription to only patients with results of culture and sensitivity and therefore treatment UTIs should be based on and sensitivity in order to limit multidrug resistance. Continuous follow up to provide an update of laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections in order to reduce multidrug resistance bacteria in UTI patients. Health care workers should enforce health education to patients in order to adhere to the treatment and thereby reducing drug resistance. v) Screening for resistance and identify modes of transmission.


Hala Mohammed Majeed; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Marwan Q. AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 68-74

Enterococcus faecalis form an important population of commensal bacteria and have been reported to possess numerous virulence factors considered significantly important in exacerbating diseases caused by them. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluates the presence of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from sheep. Methods: The study included the collection of 50 samples (25 Milk samples collected from the udder was washed and the teats were disinfected and dried using alcohol, the first milk drop removed. 5ml of milk collected on aseptic tube and 25 Feces samples collected from sheep diarrhea from rectal by aseptic gloves. (from October 2018 to March 2019 ) and transported to laboratory as soon as possible in sterile Brain heart infusion broth that incubated at 37 C for at least 24-28 hours to increasing chances of isolation. Enterococcus faecalis that were recognized by cultural characteristics, Gram stain, and biochemical reactions. Results: The results of the laboratory cultural of 50 cotton swabs used s show that the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. were 32% and 56% from milk and feaces respectively. the result of PCR test for detection of Enterococcus faecalis: show that the Enterococcus faecalis detected in rate of 66.6% from total Enterococcus spp. While the result of Enterococcus faecalis virulence factors showed that the Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5% respectively. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed the most bacterial isolated sensitive Nitrofurantoin , Imipenem and Nalidixic acid were 91.6%,83.3% and 58.3% % respectively Conclusion: We report that our simple modification of the existing multiplex PCR had increased the detection of the enterococcal virulence genes. Predominance of virulence genes was in order of Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5%. This modified PCR protocol could be useful to resolve the problem of decreased detection of virulence determinants in enterococci.

Analysis of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Uropathogens Causing CAUTI at Tertiary Care Hospital

Ashok Kumar Sharma, Sweta Kumari, Amber Prasad, Manoj Kumar, Kumari Seema .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 673-678

Aim: A research with the goal of determining the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens responsible for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: There were a total of 300 individuals that required catheterization. During her daily rounds, the infection control nurse gathered all of the pertinent information, such as the patient's name, age, sex, the date of their catheterization, and laboratory findings. The CAUTI diagnosis was carried out in accordance with the CDC criteria that were issued in 2009. Patients of both sexes who were more than 18 years old and who had been placed on a Foley's catheter for at least 48 hours were considered for inclusion in the research. This selection criteria were used to determine who would be included in the study. Results: Out of 300 catheterized patients, 20 developed CAUTI. The overall incidence was 6.67%. Male patients were more than the female patients for catheterization. Catheterization days ranged from 2 days to 12 days. The most common uropathogens were E. coli (40%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%) and Acinetobacter species (10%) from the cases of CAUTI. Imipenem was the single best antibiotic for all pathogens except Pseudomonas aeruginosa where Amikacin was the drug of choice. The Acinetobacter species also showed very high resistance to all antibiotics except Imipenem. Conclusion: CAUTI continued to be a significant risk to the health of patients and a difficult obstacle for the staff working in infection control. The implementation of appropriate care packages and the provision of ongoing education to health care staff each play a significant part in the reduction of CAUTI rates, which in turn leads to a reduction in the morbidity of patients and the length of their stays in hospitals.