Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : CT Scan


Dr Sujit Maheswari Dr Pradeep Dr Rakshit

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1219-1228

Complex renal cysts and masses occur in all age groups, right from WiIm’s tumor that commonly occurs in children, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in adults; to the rarer multilocular cystic nephroma (MLCN), which is found in both the age groups, although with different sex predilections.
Objectives- To evaluate imaging characteristic of complex renal cysts and the role of USG (including Doppler) and CECT.
Methods- The study was conducted on 42 patients in the Radiology department of Command Hospital Air Force, Bangalore from December 2014 to July 2016. Cases were included in the study after taking informed consent. All patients were examined by CECT and  USG (including  Colour Doppler) whenever required. USG studies were performed using real time equipment utilizing 3.5 MHz curvilinear electronic probes and Colour Doppler, whenever required. In paediatric patients, 7.5 MHz linear electronic probes were used. CT examinations were performed using an MDCT scanner (Volume Zoom; Philips, Somatom  AR-HP I  Somatom Hi-Q systems  Forcheim, Germany) with a gantry rotation of 0.5 seconds. SPSS was used for analysis.
Results- there are 42 patients in our study, who on CT scan were seen to have cystic renal lesions of them, 33 (79%) patients were adults, with the oldest of our patients being 85 years old (mean age -40.3 years). 21(42%) were predominantly cystic masses and 28 (58%) were predominantly solid. Of the predominantly cystic masses 10 (20%) were unilocular cysts and 11 (22%) were multilocular cysts. we had 10 (20%) cases with unilocular cystic renal lesions. We excluded simple cysts less than 3 cm in diameter. Amongst these 10 patients with unilocular masses, 1(10%) patients had renal cell carcinomas and 9 (90%) had simple renal cysts (including complex benign cysts). Malignancy was seen in 1 patient, which though comprising only 10% of unilocular lesions is a significant number.
Conclusion- a suspected renal mass should undergo a USG as the first line of imaging. A confident diagnosis of simple cyst should make one stop from further imaging.

Study of clinical profile, risk factors & CT scan finding among patients with cerebrovascular accident at a tertiary care hospital

Pawankumar Shriram Navghare, Kapil Sheshrao More, Manisha Bolke

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1789-1795

Cerebrovascular accident or stroke is one among the three leading causes of death, surpassed only by ischemic heart disease and malignancy. Stroke is also a common cause of physical disability, which imposes a substantial burden to the community in the foreseeable future. It is estimated that the incidence of stroke is likely to increase by about 20% in the next 20 years. Aim & Objective: 1. To study clinical profile and risk factors in cerebrovascular accident.2. study CT scan finding among cerebrovascular accident patients. Methods: Study design: Prospective Observational Study. Study setting: Medicine ward of tertiary care center. Study duration: 2017 to 2019
Study population: The study population included all the cases with stroke admitted at a tertiary care center. Sample size: 91. Results: The maximum incidence of stroke in this study was observed in the age group of above 60 yrs total -36, that is [18(19.78%)] each for 61-70 and >70 years of age. the male to female ratio in this study was 1.68:1. Most common risk factor was HTN 57.14%, DM 26.37, smoking 45.05%, Alcohol consumption 32.97%, Heart disease 20.88% and Hypercholesterolemia 10.99%. coronary artery disease was present in 12 patients (63.17%), rheumatic heart disease in 7 patients (36.83 %). CT Scan showed ischemic stroke in 86.81% and haemorrhage in 13.19%. 13 out of the 79 ischemic stroke patients and 09 out of the 12 haemorrhagic stroke patients were expired. Conclusion: Cerebrovascular accident cases were having male predominance with most common presentation among age group of 61-70years & more than 70 years. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor and other common factors were diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, smoking. Ischaemic stroke constituted larger percentage of stroke and mortality was highest in haemorrhagic stroke. MCA territory was most commonly involved. CT scan was important for diagnosis of stroke as rational management depends on accurate diagnosis.

A Study on Clinico Sonological Evaluation of Right Iliac Fossa Mass

Srikanth Jukuru

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 1845-1852

In this study group of 30 patients, eight were diagnosed with appendicular tumour, nine with appendicular abscess, five with ileocaecal Koch's, four with Carcinoma Caecum, and one with Crohn's disease. Appendicular Pathology accounts for 59% of cases appearing as a tumour in the right iliac fossa, followed by ileocaecal Koch's, Carcinoma Caecum, and Crohn's disease. This study found that appendicular mass is the most prevalent mass in the right iliac area and is best treated conservatively, resulting in a favourable response with no morbidity. All cases of ileo-caecal TB that were surgically treated showed a satisfactory response. Cases with Crohn's disease treated surgically and then followed on a medicinal regimen showed a positive response. In the event of a mass abdomen, ultrasound was found to have 89 percent sensitivity in recognizing the right iliac fossa mass, with accuracy; correct diagnosis was made in 89.3 percent and found to be superior to clinical evaluation 82 percent. Ultrasound is proven to be 89 percent sensitive in the final diagnosis. It has been demonstrated to be useful in distinguishing appendicular mass from appendicular abscess. This is a critical preoperative examination when the management strategy shifts from conservative to surgical. In our study, 20 patients underwent computerised tomography for further examination of a right iliac fossa mass in which ultrasonography was inconclusive. When compared to final diagnosis, CT was 94 percent sensitive in detecting the underlying pathology in elderly patients who cannot tolerate procedures such as colonoscopy, patients who are reluctant for radiation exposure (barium studies), and those who cannot afford CT scanning. In rural areas where CT scans are not available, ultrasound has a definitive role in the diagnosis of the right iliac fossa mass, in its pre-operative evaluation, and management.

Posterior Dislocation Of Elbow Associated With Radial Head Fracture, Managed By Radial Head Arthroplasty

Dr.M.Karthikeyan, Dr.Vasanth Kumar, Dr.VijayNarasimmanreddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6696-6701

In 2022, a 35-year-old woman who had fallen and hit her right elbow came to the emergency room. The swelling was visible during observation. Due to pain, the range of motion was significantly limited throughout the evaluation. Radiography revealed that this elbow dislocation was posterior. A CT scan was used to confirm it, and the imaging revealed a broken radial head and dislocation (posterior) of the right elbow. In this instance, a posterior elbow dislocation with a comminuted radial head fracture is treated by reducing the elbow dislocation and replacing the radial head. Such management offers greater flexibility and stability

Study of computer tomography measurements in normal adrenal glands in Indian population

Dr. Gajanan Mahadeo Parkhe, Dr. Datta B Nandanvankar, Dr. Rupali Mahajan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2288-2293

Background: The adrenal gland (AG) is so called because of its location adjacent to the kidney (adrenal). Adrenals are often difficult to visualize on ultrasound. CT scan is a better mode of visualization of adrenal glands. Knowledge of the range of imaging appearances of the adrenal glands in primary may allow definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present study was aimed to study computed tomography measurements of normal adrenal glands in a urban population.
Material and Methods: Present study was prospective, observational study, conducted in normal, healthy adults of either gender, age > 25 years where computed tomography measurements of normal adrenal glands.
Results: 58 participants were studied, mean age was 46.5 ± 15.2 years, 62.07% were male, mean weight was 71.46 ± 11.39 kgs, mean height was 160.14 ± 12.11 cm, body mass index was 24.16 ± 3.86 kg/m2 & waist circumference was 67.33 ± 18.41 mm2. Adrenal gland volume in right adrenal gland was 3.47 ± 1.33 mm3, in left adrenal gland was 4.77 ± 1.69 mm3 & Total adrenal gland was 8.25 ± 2.74 mm3. Gender-wise comparison of length, width & thickness in right & left side adrenal gland was comparable among male & female groups & difference was not significant statistically. In present study, majority of patients had Y shape adrenal gland (87.93% in right versus 84.48% left), followed by linear type (6.9% in right versus 8.62% left).
Conclusion: Mean adrenal gland volume in right adrenal gland was 3.47 ± 1.33 mm3, in left adrenal gland was 4.77 ± 1.69 mm3 & Total adrenal gland was 8.25 ± 2.74 mm3.