Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Hormones

Serum melatonin levels alter in type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals along with IL-2, IL-15 and TNF-α

Lingidi Jhansi Lakshmi, Savita Rathore, Muhamed Faizal, Faiz Noor Khan Yusufi, Doddigarla Zephy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2452-2462

Background & Aims: According to our knowledge, there is a lack of sample study in this specific region of our country, regarding the relationship of melatonin with anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the novelty of this present study, we have taken the opportunity to determine the relationship of melatonin with anti- (IL-2) and pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α) cytokines in 2DM subjects. Methods: After obtaining the approval from the institutional ethical committee, the present study was commenced. The study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, Malwanchal University, Indore, India. Total two hundred and thirty individuals are recruited in to this present study after the approval from Institutional ethical committee. Age & sex matched one hundred and fifteen human non-2DM individuals were taken into healthy control group. One hundred and fifteen subjects, on treatment for 2DM were included in second group. Results: Statistical significant differences were observed in serum melatonin levels and post-prandial blood glucose when compared between 2DM subjects and healthy controls. We also observed statistical significances in the serum values of IL-2, IL-15, IL-1β, and TNF-α when compared between 2DM subjects and healthy controls. The study observed steady upward positive correlation between melatonin and IL-2 levels in healthy controls. On the contrary the study observed a negative association between serum melatonin and IL-15 levels and also between melatonin and TNF-α in 2DM subjects. Conclusion: The authors conclude from the study that alterations in the study parameters in 2DM group are due to altered balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. This altered balance is due to low production of melatonin in 2DM subjects than healthy controls.

Comparative study of obesity between men and women: Review

Zainab khidhair hussain; Israa Hasan Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 367-378

Obesity is disorder in a foremost nutritional health it’s developed with countries developing. Also is known as increasingin fat accumulation that lead toproblem in health, besidesmay coin one of the reasons lead toloss of life,the obesity not effect on adults just but effect onoffspringand juveniles. In some ofinhabitants the incidence of obesity is superior in female than in male; on the other hand, the variation degree of the between the genderdifferby country.Obesity is generally measured by body mass index and waist circumference, Obesity are classified according to body mass index into:Pre obesity sort 1 : (25 - 29.9) kg/m2, Obesity sort 2 : (30 - 34.9 kg/m2) and extreme obesity sort 3: (40 kg/m2) or greater. Obesity is described by a pathologic condition with augmented overall of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol while reduced of HDL levels.There are many hormones causes pathophysiology of fatness such as adipokines, gutcorrelated hormones and ghrelin, numerous studies have revealed that the association among fatness and the metabolic sickness such as Insulin resistance, activity of lipoprotein lipase in muscle reduction and free fatty acids increasing. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight different between men am women according to quality of life in different population and countries