Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Smokers


Dr.S.Parthiban, Dr.Umasudhakar,Dr.Abdul Rahim Akbar,Dr Nimisha mithradas,Dr.kadhiresan,Dr.Ebenezer M .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1861-1866

Background: Reactive oxygen species [ROS] if produced in large amounts, have destructive effects because of high reactivity. During oxidative stress there is an imbalance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant defence mechanisms through damaging cellular macromolecules. Smoking is one of the major risk factor that affects the prevalence, degree and severity of periodontal disease.
AIM: . The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and compare the levels of ROM in GCF, saliva and plasma in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis
MATERIALS & METHODS: 30 Participants (males) were selected and were divided into two groups Group I - Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis and Group II - Non-Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis with 15 each . GCF, Saliva and Plasma were collected from both the groups and were tested in the laboratory through the principle of Fenton’s reaction.
RESULTS: One way ANOVA analysis and paired t test were used for analysis .On comparison of ROM levels in smokers and non-smokers, level of ROM was increased in smokers and it was highly significant with p value ≤ 0.05.
CONCLUSION: Free radical production mediated by cigarette smoke is highly toxic and impaired oxidant-antioxidant balance is a risk factor for periodontal disease, as the results from the present study suggested increased  levels of ROM in smokers

Evaluation Of Effect Of Diabetes AndSmoking On Prognosis Of Dental Implants- AClinicalStudy

Dr.SumitSShetgar,Dr.SanketIngale,Dr.VinayakShukla,Dr.ShripalOswal,Dr. VikramTodkar5,Dr. Rutuja Todkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9179-9183

The present study was conducted to assess effect of diabetes and smokingonprognosis of
Materials & Methods: 120 patients who received dental implants in last 2 years
weredivided into 4 groups of 30 each. Group I were smokers and non- diabetic, group II
werediabetic and non- smokers, group III were smokers and diabetics and group IV
werecontrols.Success rate of dental implants wereassessed.
Results: There were 18 males and 12 females in group I, 14 males and 16 females in
groupII, 13 males and 17 females in group III and 15 males and 15 females in group IV.
Therewere 24 successful implants in group I, 23 in group II, 23 in group III and 28 in
group IV.Thedifferencewas significant (P< 0.05).

Association of Lipid Profiles, Body Mass Index and ABO Blood Groups among Iraqi Male Smokers and Non- Smokers

Suad Azeez Hasan; Saad Abdul Kareem Mohammed; Aya Nabeel Hameed; Jasim Adaeem Shaalan; Manar Muhammed Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 194-201

This short study enclosed a male category of Iraqis (343) divided into 2 groups one group
contain smokers males (183) who smoke over twenty cigarettes per day and group of nonsmokers
males (160), the mean age groups was (41 years), the predominant blood groups
was O+ and B+, for each groups. The results of this study revealed statistically highly
significant differences within the group of smokers ' body mass levels and blood lipid
levels in distinction to those of the non-smokers with a propensity to have obesity within
the category of smokers relative to the group of non-smokers, so blood lipid
concentrations were higher in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol rate in
the smoker's community, and the HDL rate was lower. Whereas the body mass index for
this study was a statistically highly significant regression towards the high proportion of
obesity with high concentration levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density
fats and a drop in high-density fat concentration levels

Estimation Of Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Levels In Smokers And Tobacco Chewers Associated With Diabetes

Sushmitha M; Preethi. M; B. Sivapathasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 119-128
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.05.12

Background:- Alkaline phosphatase is the group of hydrolytic enzymes that are involved in the cellular metabolism. Alkaline phosphatase in saliva is used as an indicator of gingival inflammation, bone metabolism and other oral lesions like premalignancies and oral cancer.
Aim and objective: To estimate the levels of Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase (S-ALP) in smokers and tobacco chewers associated with diabetes and diabetics without any habits.
Materials and Methods: The study includes 30 cases and 10 control. 30 cases divided in group A, B and C and control group D: (1) Group A - 10 smokers who are diabetic. (2) Group B - 10 tobacco chewers who are diabetic. (3) Group C - 10 nonsmokers and non-tobacco chewers who are diabetic. (4) Group D - 10 nonsmokers, non-tobacco chewers and nondiabetic as control. Saliva was collected from the subjects of the above mentioned groups and the levels of S-ALP were estimated using a semi auto- analyzer and comparison was made.
Results: The result reveals increase in the alkaline phosphatase levels in saliva of smokers and tobacco chewers with diabetes group (Group A, B). Non-smokers and non-tobacco chewers with diabetes group (Group C) had higher level compared to the control group (Group D).
Conclusion: Salivary alkaline phosphatase is a clinical biomarker that is used to determine the oral diseases due to adverse habits and diabetes at its early stage.


Dr. Lajwanti lalwani; Dr. Gyanshankar mishra; Dr. Abhay gaidhane; Dr. Zahiruddin quazi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1342-1347

Introduction- Pursed lip breathing (PBL) is spontaneously adopted by COPD
patients to relieve dyspnea. A systematic review done by S. E. Roberts et al concluded that
studies should be done to find the short-term benefits of PBL that helps in clinical
improvement in patient’s status. So with this background the study was undertaken to find
the effect of PLB in stable COPD patients for shorter time on saturation levels, dyspnea
and PEFR Readings.
Methodology- IEC approval from institute and written informed consent was signed by the
subjects. This is an Experimental study and included 56 stable COPD patients were
included in the study with inclusive criteria of Diagnosed case of Stable COPD Patients on
regular medication and visiting respiratory OPD and IPD of tertiary care center.


Kethiswar Raj; Balakrishna R N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1159-1165

Alveolar osteitis which is also known as dry socket, is an inflammation of the alveolar bone. Usually, this occurs after a postoperative complication of tooth extraction.Alveolar osteitis can occur where the blood clot fails to form or is lost from the socket and this leaves the empty socket where bone is exposed to the oral cavity, causing a localized alveolar osteitis limited to the lamina dura . This most specific type is known as dry socket and is associated with increased pain and delayed healing time.The aim of the study is to compare the prevalence of dry socket and age as a risk factor in patients who visited Saveetha Dental College.The objective was to find the base in Saveetha Dental college by the data collected for the theoretical framework for research proposal.In materials and methods , there are certain requirements that were necessary such as case control study for a better understanding , patients details who visited saveetha dental college for a background check , data obtained from the outpatient record was to ensure that the data can be supported , followed by analytics of dry socket patients to know the total number of patients involved ,the sample size obtained and the tabulation of data was done in excel sheet and finally a satisfied analysis is done with the proper data.The majority of patients that are with dry socket were around the age range from 28 years to 47 years and is more common in females than in males and majority of them are non-smokers.Even in the gender prevalence , the total number of females are more than males by numbers and it is obtained with the confirmed data.The mean age group from the age range of 28 years to 47 years is the age group 50 years and the positive statistically significant correlation between the age and dry sockets.The type of test used in this study is this chi square test and the P value of the test is <0.05 which is significant.We can observe the graph showing distributions such as age where the age group from 28 years to 47 years has a total value of (9 with 53.1%) and we also can conclude that the age group from 55 years to 74 years have a total value of 46.9%.In gender we can tell from the graph that the male group has a total value of (8 with 47.1%) and that the female group has a total value of (52.9%).From smoking we can conclude that a total of (76.5%) of the obtained patients are non-smokers and a total of (23.5%) of the obtained patients are smokers


M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 99-103

Tobacco smoking is widely prevalent all over the world and it continues to rise in
developing countries. Smoking has a deleterious effect on pulmonary functions. Smoking
is the single most significant risk factor contributing to the development of Chronic
obstructive airway diseases (COPD). Spirometry by a trained health professional gives an
indication of lung health by measuring airway abnormality. Objectives were to study
pulmonary function test (PFT) in smokers and non-smokers Tobacco smoking, in the form
of cigarettes, has a deleterious effect on the health, mainly on the pulmonary functions.
Smoking is highly associated with an abnormal PFT. Cessation of smoking should be
encouraged and PFTs from time to time in asymptomatic adults both smokers and nonsmokers
will be useful for early identification of abnormalities.