Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : wet cupping

The role of manual therapy/practices (dry cupping, wet cupping, leech therapy, venesection, or phlebotomy) in lung diseases

Abbas Joushan; Rasool Choopani; Khosrow Agin; Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4444-4454

Background: Manual therapy/ practices (dry cupping, wet cupping, leech therapy, venesection or phlebotomy) are one of the three pillars of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) and has been used for thousands of years. Various studies have shown that these methods are effective in treating or reducing the symptoms of many diseases, including several pulmonary diseases and various types of pain, diseases of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, skin diseases, and so on. In the present review, we have dealt with the role of manual therapy on common lung diseases (Asthma, Cough, Hemoptysis, Chest pain and pleural pain, Pneumonia, Pleurisy) by reviewing (TPM) books and international and national scientific studies conducted in this area. Method: To investigate the role of manual therapy in lung diseases, traditional medicine books, and databases (PubMed, Scopus, ISI), and a database of Persian articles (SID) in this field were searched. Initially, 30 books and 348 international and national records (Appendix 1) were found and ultimately 20 books (Appendix 2) and 13 articles (Appendix 3) were included for our study. Result: In traditional medicine references, the management for all kinds of respiratory ailments with their specific methods is explained (Appendix 4). However, studies in this field have only examined the effect of cupping on asthma, pneumonia, and cough. Our review article has collected and presented some of the available resources on the use of manual therapy/ practices alone or in combination with other therapies in the treatment of common lung diseases such as Asthma, cough, and pneumonia. Conclusion: The results of this systematic study indicate that different methods of blood sampling in traditional medicine have been repeatedly recommended for various lung diseases, especially asthma, pneumonia, and cough.


Waleed Ibrahim Sindi, Abdulrahman Ahmed Alzhrani, Abdullah Marzooq Al Harbi, Fuad Shaker Rashad Zainy, Adnan Rubayan Obaid Alotaibi, Saleh Mousa Alzahrani Amna Adam Bakur Hawsawi, Sabah Saeed Abdallah AL-yateem, Majed Saad Siraj Alharthi, Safran Ibraheem Alharthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 205-215

Wet cupping is a traditional and alternative treatment that is still used to reduce patients’ pain in several Eastern and European countries. It has been proven effective and has an essential role in reducing pain and as a treatment for many diseases in past studies. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This discipline includes a diverse set of approaches used for prevention and treatment of many diseases. Several benefits of CAM have been proven, and it may be considered an effective modality for disease prevention, treatment of non-communicable diseases and for improving the quality of life of individuals with chronic medical conditions.2 Many patients who may not be satisfied with the outcomes of modern medicine, particularly those with chronic diseases, may be satisfied with the outcomes of CAM. Pain is the most common reason for seeking therapeutic alternatives of conventional medicine. Cupping, wet or dry, is an ancient treatment, which was broadly utilized in several communities, and it was recommended by the Islamic society.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the effect of wet cupping use among patients complaining of pain attended in the Hijama clinic in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Method: A retrospective records review study was conducted using medical records of patients who attended in the Hijama clinic at Makkah, KSA from January 2019 to December 2019. Our total, 200 patients attended the clinic during the year 2019. Out of those patients, 120 were complaining of pain and were included in the study. The Chi-square test and Multivariate logistic regression were used to measure the association between the various socio-determinants and the wet cupping use.
 Results: A chi-square test of independence was performed to determine the association between the frequency of WCT use and the main complaint, independence was performed to determine the association between the frequency of WCT use and the main complaint. There was a statistically significant association between them, Chi-square X2 =86.663, p=0.001.
 Conclusion: Wet cupping has positive effects on reducing pain. There are promising effects in favor of using wet cupping for improving quality of life of patients with chronic conditions, cupping is recommended as a complementary treatment modality for chronic medical conditions, especially pain .