Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Aging

Effect of an Eight-Week PNF Training of the Lower Extremities on the Static, Dynamic, and Functional Balance in Elderly Women Aged 60-70 Years

Abdorreza Eghbal Moghanlou, Abdullah Demirli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6573-6585

Loss of muscle strength and joints range of motion associated with aging are the main causes of balance deficit and falling in the elderly, and training using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) may be effective in improving these factors. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an eight-week PNF training of the lower extremitiesin improving the static, dynamic, and functional balance among elderly women aged 60-70 years.  To this end, a pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Participants (30 elderly women, age 69.26±3.72 years, weight 67.26±5.91 kg, height 155.78±4.64 cm) were randomly assigned into two groups of the experiment (training group, n = 15) and control (daily life activities, n = 15). The training intervention consisted of eight weeks (24 sessions of 50 minutes, three sessions per week) of PNF training of the lower extremities. The static, dynamic and functional balance were measured in the pre-test and the post-test using the Sharpened Romberg Test, the Timed Up and Go Test, and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, respectively. The Results revealed significant improvements in the experiment group in terms of static balance with eyes open (20.48%), static balance with eyes closed (54.70%), dynamic balance (26.60%), and functional balance (12.37%, all p ≤ 0.001). Comparison of the groups in the post-test showed that the experiment group significantly was better than the control group in static balance with eyes open (p < 0.001), static balance with eyes closed (p < 0.001), dynamic balance (p = 0.019) and functional balance (p = 0.006). Based on the findings, an eight-week PNF training of the lower extremities is effective in improving static, dynamic and functional balance in elderly women; where the ability of static balance with eyes closed receives the most influence from the training



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5170-5194

With increase in the proportion of aging dependent population, the need for understanding the
pathogenesis of aging and the risk factors related to age related neurodegeneration is
increasing with definite certainty. Studies pertaining to age related neurodegeneration will
play a role in mitigating the impending issues related to aging population. Studies have
shown the relatively greater involvement of white matter compared to the grey matter with
age and therefore the evaluation of white matter tracts will further shed light onto the
processes that occur with aging.(1)
MRI was performed on a 3T MR scanner (General Electric, Signa Pioneer) with a head‑neck
45 coil. The subjects’ brains were evaluated with conventional imaging using routine axial
T2/T1‑weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. The DTI acquisition protocol
which was used is a dual-spin echo single shot echo-planar imaging sequence with the
following parameters: Forty 3mm thick slices with no inter-slice gap. TR=6400ms,
TE=88ms. FOV= 220x220mm2, matrix of 128x128 zero filled to 256x256. DTI was
performed with b=1000s/mm2 using 25 different encoding directions. The Total scanning
time was 11 mins. Various white matter tracts were evaluated from the DTI sequences using
fibertractographyfollowing which the average Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and
Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values of each fiber was computed and tabulated with respect to

Detection Some Biomarkkers In Sarcopenia Patients-Basra City

Abdullah Abbas Hamzah Al- Rubaye; Amna Nasser Habeeb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2417-2429

Background: Sarcopenia is a reduction in the rate, strength, and function of skeletal muscle mass that occurs mainly during aging, reduced physical activity, inflammation, and, or as a result of oxidative stress. C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF), procollagen type 3 N-terminal peptide (P3NT), and myostatin circulate biomarkers in elderly people associated with skeletal mass. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is also a circulating inflammation marker that contributes to the release of hs-CRP and alpha1 antichymotrypsin (AACT).
The objective of Research: To define the differences between certain biomarkers in the sarcopenic subject, the study compared the findings with those of the non-sarcopenic subject that may support awareness of the sarcopenia principles.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 170 participants living in Basra city. The weight (kilogram)/height (meter) 2 equation was used in the BMI calculation. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and calcium were estimated by a fully automated biochemistry analyzer using enzymatic methods. VLDL-cholesterol was tallied by using the Fridwald equation. Vitamin D, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP were measured by a fully automated ELISA analyzer.
Results: current study parameters included (BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP) ) in the sarcopenic subject showed more than the control subject with significantly higher changes (P<0.01)., whereas the parameters included (HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D) were demonstrated in sarcopenia group less than 
a control group with significantly higher changes (P<0.01). BMI had a direct correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP, with highly significant (P < 0.01). BMI had an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D, with highly statistic changes (P <0.01).
Conclusions: A findings of the study revealed that obesity serves as a health risk for sarcopenia in elderly adults. High blood levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, IL-6 AACT, and hs-CRP in blood circulation raise the risk for sarcopenia in the elderly. Decrease concentrations of vitamin D, calcium, and HDL-cholesterol increase the opportunity for the elderly to have sarcopenia.

Clinical characteristics comparision of the types of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia attack between young and elderly patients

Si Dung Chu; Song Giang Tran; Minh Thi Tran; Khanh Quoc Pham

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3954-3965

This study is carried out to describe types of clinical characteristic of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia attack (PSVT) between young and elderly patients who underwent cardiac electrophysiology test. This is a cross sectional descriptiveand prospective study. 182 patients who were diagnosed with PSVT attack underwent cardiac electrophysiological test at Vietnam Heart Institute during 01/2014-05/2017. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n=93) is the young patients (< 60 years of age) and Group II (n=89) is a elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age).: Group I (young patients) accounted for 51.1% and Group II (elderly patients) made up 48.9%. vThe rate of PVST attack in female was 70.0% while that in male was 29.1% (P>0.05); the mean age of elderly patients was higher than younger patients (p < 0.0001). The PVST attacks have moredate positive correlation with structure (R = 0.355) and hypertension (R = 0.314), there are differences between both groups in the structure and hypertension. The structure and hypertension rates of patients in elderly petients group were higher than those in young patients group (p < 0.0001), there is a strongly postive correlation between the structure and hypertension patients (R = 0.966, p < 0.0001). Characteristics of PVST attack are 68.3% of atrioventricular nodal reentrant (AVNRT) and 29.6% of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) attacks; The AVNRT and AVRT attack rates in female were 74.8% and 61.8% respectively, whereas the AVNRT and AVRT attack rates in male were 25.2% and 28.2% respectively (p > 0.05). PVST attacks were more common in female patients than in male patients. the likelihood of having AVNRT was higher compared to AVRT attacks, and the mean age of AVNRT and AVRT attack in the elderly patients was higher than that in young patients.