Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Coronavirus


Classifying Covid-19 Chest X-ray Images Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Deep Learning: A Comparative Analysis

A. Veronica Nithila Sugirtham, Dr. C. Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3194-3207

More than a year since the novel coronavirus was first discovered, its presence is
still prevalent throughout the world. In such grave situations if technology can help
humans combat the spread, then why not explore it. Therefore, keeping this in mind,
several researchers have already started investigating artificial intelligence algorithms to
find solutions to predict coronavirus using X-ray images of chest. But due to lack of
dataset during the initial days of their research, many came up with framework using pre
trained image classification models such as VGG-16, Inceptionv3, ResNet-50 and others.
In this paper, the performance of two machine learning algorithms which are support
vector machine and decision tree has been evaluated. Further developed deep learning
model applying convolutional neural network to classify the chest x-ray images as covid-19
or normal. The final CNN model was also integrated with a user interface and hosted on
web server for easy access which allows anyone to upload the chest x-ray image from his
computer or mobile and check the result.

Automatic Classification of the Severity of COVID-19 Patients Based on CT Scans and X-rays Using Deep Learning

Sara Bhatti; Dr. Asif Aziz; Dr. Naila Nadeem; Irfan Usmani; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aamir; Dr. Irum Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1436-1455

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which originated from China, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as it has surpassed over eighty three million cases worldwide, with nearly two million deaths. The unexpected exponential increase in positive cases and the limited number of ventilators, personal safety equipment and COVID-19 test kits, especially in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC), had put undue pressure on medical staff, first responders as well as the overall health care systems. The Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is the decisive test for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but a significant percentage of positive tests return a false negative result. For patients in LMICs, the availability and affordability of routine Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning and chest X-rays is better compared to an RT-PCR test, especially in rural areas. Chest X-rays and CT scans can aid in the prognosis and management of COVID-19 positive patients, but are not recommended for diagnostic purposes. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), three network based pre-trained models (AlexNet, GoogleNet and Resnet50) were used for the automatic classification of positive COVID-19 chest X-Rays and CT scans based on their severity into three classes- normal, mild/moderate, severe. This classification can aid health care workers in performing expeditious analysis of large numbers of thoracic CT scans and chest X-rays of COVID-19 positive patients, and aid in their prognosis and management. The images were obtained from public repositories, and were verified and classified by trained and highly experienced radiologist from Agha Khan University Hospital prior to simulations. The images were augmented and trained, and ResNet50 was concluded to achieve the highest accuracy. This research can be used for other lung infections, and can aid the authorities in the preparations of future pandemics.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): preventive measures and potential interventions

Marwan M Merkhan; Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq; Hiyam A Al-Taii

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1388-1399

Novel viral eruption originating in Wuhan city (Hubei, China) has spread internationally reaching all continents in an unexpectedly very short time, posing a great burden on global transportation, health, and economy. This mini-review article aimed at focusing on the available preventive measures and therapeutic interventions taking into account that there is a limited scientific resource of information and lack of specific established vaccination yet We searched Iraq Virtual Science Library (IVSL), PubMed, Cochrane Library MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), for the 3 target words ‘COVID-19, coronavirus, 2019-CoV’ and we included only articles in English in the study. The outcome of this study is important nationally and globally providing information about general measures and possible interventions relevant to public and health professionals. This review concludes that the nutritional status of the patient together with proper diagnosis should be the priority of the management plan provided that the loci is within the outbreak area and available flu vaccines should be used by unaffected health-care providers and children.

PANDEMIC ANALYZER FOR EFFICIENT PREDICTION OF COVID-19 IN INDIA USING MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

OWK.MRUDULA .; A. MARY SOWJANYA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2271-2285

With the rapid growth of COVID-19 pandemic infectious disease caused by the Corona Virus. It was first identified in Wuhan in December 2019. It expanded its circle all over the world and finally spreading its route to India. The whole world is fighting against the spread of this deadly disease, cases in India also gradually increasing day by day since May after lockdown. This article proposes how to contribute to utilizing the machine learning and deep learning models with the aim for understanding its everyday exponential behaviour along with the prediction of future reachability of the COVID-2019 across the nations by utilizing the real-time information from the Johns Hopkins. This paper studies the COVID-19 dataset and explore the data by data visualization with different libraries that are available in Python. The paper also discusses the current situation in India while tackling the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing development in AI and ML has significantly improved treatment, medication, screening tests, prediction, forecasting, contact tracing, and drug/vaccine development process for the Covid19 pandemic and reduce the human intervention in medical practice. However, most of the models are not deployed enough to show their real-world operation, but they are still up to the mark. Within this paper, we present Exploratory Data Analysis, Data Preprocessing, Data Cleaning and Manipulations, Machine Learning Algorithms, Pandemic Analyzing Engine GUI, and Deep Learning. We have performed linear regression, Decision Tree, SVM, Random Forest and for forecasting, we performed FBPrompet, ARIMA model to predict the next 15 day’s Pandemic situation.

Covid 19 And Its Implications On Dental Practice: A Review Of Literature

Dr. R Naveen Reddy; Dr. Swetha Vempalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 677-686

The current outburst of the coronavirus strain 2019 (COVID-19) represents a public health emergency of global distress. Because of the community spread outline of this infection, the outburst is still on a rise in spite of global efforts to control the disease spread. The appearance of coronavirus in today’s life brought so many restrictions in daily life. It appears as life has stuck and limited. Dentistry is the field of medicine which has suffered a lot. The present article highlighted various challenges and effect of coronavirus on oral health and its implication

Systamatic Review On Treatment Of Coronavirus

Dr.Eswari V; Dr.Maunika M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5571-5575

Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and vascular injury, micro-angiopathy, angiogenesis and widespread thrombosis. The first symptom of the common cold is upper respiratory tract infection. Currently, there is no precise cure for the SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 reviews numerous prescription drugs used in global economy, which includes antiviral agents, inflammation suppressants, low molecular weight heparins, plasma, and hyperimmune immune globulins. Clinical researchers are using and investigating various ways of handling the virus. This article explores SARS-CoV-2 drug therapy along with other prescription medicines. The article will do the review of the literature done by the authors about the treatment of the coronavirus.

Coronavirus Disease: Existing Literature and Status in India

Dr.Arunachalam P; HOD,Dr.Jaiganesh S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5707-5715

The outbreak of COVID-19 disease began in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan in China, also recognized as China's largest transport centre. The condition became epidemic during China's spring festival. The virus is quickly transported into several nations, including countries with low wages So far, 234073 have registered COVID-19 cases in the world with a total of 9840 fatalities. Cough, high fever, a sore throat, tiredness and respiratory trauma are the typical signs of COVID-19. The condition was shown to be moderate in most cases, others with pneumonia with multi-organ failure and acute ARDS. The Incubation Time for the infection has been observed to be 2-14 days, typically 4 days in maximum cases. India remains in stage 2 on local transmission in line with WHO Record 60. The WHO announced 60 that no population transmission has yet occurred in India that can be avoided by preventing mass meetings and proper citizens screens. Govt. Govt. There have been several initiatives by India to minimize the spread of COVID-19 in the region. The COVID-19 infection incidence in India appears to be poor in comparison to the country's population. This is attributable to swift government measures to quarantine and close down the boundaries of the accused population. The global economy is in great slowdown due to COVID-19 assault and would potentially cost roughly $1 trillion. This is attributable to swift government measures to quarantine and close down the boundaries of the accused population. By reducing H-H transmissions, the spread of COVID-19 infections may be minimized. Anti-CoV drug discovery is also required, and will replace the supporting therapies for infection control.

AWARENESS OF COVID-19 AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI, INDIA- A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Thailavathy; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1620-1625

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a global public-health emergency. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk, as most dental treatment procedures can lead to the spread of infection due to the direct proximity with saliva, blood and generation of aerosols.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among dental students in Chennai, India during these critical times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered, structured, close-ended 15-point questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 198 participants completed the questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as percentages. RESULTS: Among the 198 participants a total of 54 (27.2%) exhibited high level of knowledge while 67 (33.8%) demonstrated moderate knowledge and 77 (38.8%) demonstrated low level of knowledge. Mean knowledge score was 8.5, minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 15 respectively among the dental students.
CONCLUSION: Most the participants seemed to have inadequate knowledge about COVID19 and precautionary measures taken to prevent COVID19 from spreading. These show vulnerabilities in the knowledge of dental students to deal with the current scenario and thus, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dental students through health education and training programmes. After the condition is normalised, further research on the subject are also required.

Coronavirus: A Review

Jaipreet .; Anu Bansal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5927-5935

Coronavirus is the emerging mutagenic pathogenic microorganism that is affecting the human beings in a larger extent. The name is given after its crown shaped like structure. In this review, structure and history of coronavirus is explained in detail. The history depicts the similarity and dissimilarity of novid coronavirus with preexisting SARS virus. Apart from that review also concludes about the mechanism of action of virus, how it spreads and transfer in human system. The symptoms and preventive measures are also discussed in the review.

COVID-19 care options: Facts and Challenges

Dr.Nandhana Prashanth V; Dr.Ravikanth P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5694-5700

In December 2019, an outbreak due to extreme acute Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cow-2) respiratory syndrome was first identified in Wuhan, China. The 2019 global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 culminated in an extraordinarily strong risk for spreading. No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp).

Study Of Studies Related To Epidemiology Of COVID-19 And Public Health Risk Mitigation Strategies: A Review

Neha Thakur; Dr. Sakshi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4780-4796

The aim of this paper is to study some of widespread infectious epidemic diseases i.e. SARS, MERS and coronavirus which has been impacted global health and economy on vast scale. There are approximately 70,000 coronavirus cases from 2019 (COVID-19) are confirmed, of that over a pair of, 1000 patients are fatal and this disease turned out to be a serious threat to global health. The first approach of this paper is to have in-depth knowledge about the structure of coronavirus, its structural proteins i.e. S protein and their biological activities for the virus have been discussed. The second approach is to focus on different phases of epidemic and response interventions which are mandate to slow down the spread of any disease till its complete elimination this can help to accelerate further work on studies for managing future public health emergencies. Proper and cumulative planning at international/national/community levels and organized strategic preparation for prevention and control of such epidemic diseases is need of the prevailing global risk.

Health Effects OfCovid- 19 Across The Globe -A Review

SachinAditya B; JothiPriya. A; V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3150-3155

Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Millions of people were at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors, Covid- 19 being one of the most popular ones requiring more efforts to control its spread. During the epidemic period of coronavirus diseases, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children is very important for children’s oral and general health. In order to prevent the occurrence of cross-infection and epidemic spreading of Covid- 19 during dental practice, the recommendation to parents include making them hand hygiene at home and include proper oral care habits. Covid-19is a global human disaster presented with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. According to the cross-sectional study, two weeks after the occurrence of Covid-19 in chin almost 40% of the affected youth were proven to have psychological problems, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of Covid-19. Person to person transmission of Covid-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments, Extensive measures to reduce person to person transmission of Covid- 19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak.

Awareness On Emerging Viruses Across The Globe Among College Students In Andhra Pradesh

Lasya , G; Ms. Jothi Priya; Dr. Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2513-2527

The term emerging virus was coined by scientists in the 1990s to describe the agent of a new or previously unrecognized infection. The term implies that emerging viruses are new; however this assumption is incorrect. New virus infections have been emerging for thousands of years, at least since the rise of agriculture 11,000 years ago. The development of agriculture and commerce provided the large populations needed to sustain human infections such as measles and smallpox.An infection is the littlest sort of parasite to exist, typically running from 0.02 to 0.3μm in size, albeit some infections can be as extensive as 1μm. A viral particle or virion contains a single nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) core surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes enzymes that are required to initiate viral replication. Viruses can only replicate within the cells of animals, plants, and bacteria and, as such, are referred to as obligate intracellular parasites.Infections are not characterized by the diseases they cause; rather, they are gathered into various families dependent on whether the nucleic corrosive is single-or twofold abandoned, regardless of whether a viral envelope is available and their method of replication.

Genetic and Cell biology Discriminants of Sars-CoV2 Infection and Susceptibility to Covid-19 pulmonary complication

P Scalia; SJ Williams; R Luca’; Antonio Giordano; E Bucci

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 5-9

The agent of Covid19, Sars-CoV-2 has caused thousands of fatalities worldwide and overshadowed the number of deaths of other previous coronavirus outbreaks (Sars-CoV1 2002 and MERS-CoV 2012). Although the new coronavirus pathogenicity is actively under investigation, part of its infectious behavior can be linked to its higher binding affinity to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the respiratory tracts. However, the expression of ACE2 per se may not be sufficient to justify the individual variability observed among affected patients in terms of clinical outcome in apparently non-immune depressed, non-elders subjects. The present update provides an overview of the most recent scientific findings related to genetic factors involved in the Sars-CoV-2 infectious process and their potential role in affecting the virus pathogenicity. The present update can provide valuable hints towards developing a predictive screening/susceptibility profile testing on individuals not yet infected and/or in non symptomatic positive subjects towards managing the current morbidity and mortality risk and establishing personalized intervention protocols for the early treatment of the Sars-CoV-2-associated life-threatening pulmonary complication.

BEING PRODUCTIVE IN COMPLETE ISOLATION - A SURVEY

Nandini. P; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr .S . Gheena

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1322-1329

In 2019 -2020 coronavirus is a major public health issue and self-isolation is among the best suggestions to reduce the spread of the virus.COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered virus named ‘coronavirus’ which is rapidly spreading all around the world. The coronavirus pandemic is being, with physicians seen as the frontline soldiers with the war against the disease. COVID-19 infected people are experiencing mild to moderate respiratory disorder and they are getting recovered without requiring special treatment but for some, it is a fatal outcome. As a mitigatory measure, lockdown is imposed by most of the governments. The main aim of this study is about the public perception of being productive during the lockdown. A self-structured questionnaire was distributed through google forms linked to 100 individuals of the general population of India. The questionnaire was studied carefully and answers were marked by the participants. The results were collected and the data were analysed using SPSS software version 20. The majority of Indian population are aware of COVID -19 and that they know the density of medical support. The overall accept lockdown as a necessary measure. Most of them know about the COVID -19 outbreak associated with the population around the world. 90% of the participants know the outbreak of coronavirus and the advantages of being isolated. The results of this survey concluded that in India people are aware and they know how to be productive during this isolation period. The study shows that being productive can make people do more things and be creative and learn more things.

ECONOMIC DECLINATION DUE TO COVID- 19 LOCKDOWN - A REVIEW

Yoshita Guntupalli; A. Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2289-2295

COVID 19 is a strain of coronavirus which is virulent and spreads easily among humans. It has become a pandemic and has caused a global emergency. Though the death rate is not that high it is still considered dangerous. It has caused a huge impact on the global economy. The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic impacts on various sectors of Indian economy. Several relevant articles were selected, analysed and computed inorder to gain accurate information of the economic losses we have faced. National lockdown has impacted not only the Indian economy but also the global economy very severely. Many sectors such as the travel and tourism industry, the live events industry, hotels and real estate have been shut down and have faced severe losses. The GDP has faced a slight declination. The data collection and study analysis was conducted in the year 2020 in Private Dental College, Chennai.

Recommended Medications For N- Cov Disease - A Review.

Dhayanithi. J; Smiline Girija A.S; Brundha M.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2572-2582

With the raising concerns on the mortality rate in the recent covid pandemic, the lacunae of proper treatment strategy plays a vital factor. Since there is no approved medication for COVID-19, medications involving hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate were recently recommended. The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved Favilavir, an antiviral medication, with minimal side effects and a moderate control on viral replication. Remdesvir, another antiviral, has drawn the attention of several researchers to treat the novel COVID-19 virus as COVID-19 is identical to SARS and MERS viruses. Remdesvir, was successful in the previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Some researchers also suggest high doses of vitamin C supplementation may improve the patient''s condition. This review thus provides a basic overview on the recommended medication and urges the need to develop novel anti-covid drugs and vaccines.

Awareness On The Diet Plan In Covid- 19 Among College Students - A Survey

Helen Reshma; K, Vishnu Priya; V, Gayathri. R; Kavitha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2720-2738

ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease ( COVID-19 ) is caused by SARS-CoV2 and is a great global public health concern. The zoonotic origin of COVID-19 is likely to be the wet animal market in Wuhan city, China. The transmission of COVID-19 can be from person-to-person and this leads to the isolation of patients. Extensive measures were taken to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 and to control the current outbreak. So it is necessary and important to know the dietary patterns which play an important role in the prevention of COVID-19. This study involves college students in the age group of 12-40 years. A well structured questionnaire was prepared comprising 15 questions covering socio-demographic information, knowledge , attitude, perceptions was framed and administered to the participants through an online google forms link. A total of 116 responses were collected out of which 42.6% were male and 57.4% were female. 80% of the total population were aware that diet patterns play an important role in COVID-19. Pearson Chi square value= 0.61, p=0.89 ( p>0.05 indicating statistically not significant. 73% of the total population were aware that an increase in immunity of our body prevents COVID-19. Pearson Chi square value=5.88, p=0.11 ( p>0.05 indicating statistically not significant). It may be concluded that most of the students are aware of the diet pattern in COVID-19. Awareness may be created to have an intake of balanced diet during the pandemic period.