Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Cytology

Cell Block Technique In The Diagnosis Of Oral Lesions – A Methodical Assessment

Dr. Usha Hegde, Dr. Sreeshyla HS, Dr. Sowmya SV, Dr. Dominic Augustine, Dr. Mangesh Shenoy Panakaje, Dr. Aishwarya Ramesh, Dr. Vanishri C Haragannavar, Dr. Harshitha N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2297-2306

This review aims to explore the use of cell block cytology in the diagnosis of oral lesions
Background: Utilizing the science of cytopathology is cost effective, fast, simple and accurate. Over the years, with the improvements in technical aspects and the appearance of cell block technique in cytopathology, the gold standard of “must have tissue to make an accurate diagnosis” is rapidly changing.
Review results: The review identified articles on use of cell block technique in oral lesions. The current research studies on this technique for oral lesions are very sparse. Most of the identified studies were limited to odontogenic lesions.
Conclusion: Though the cell block technique is being practiced for more than a century now for non-oral lesions, its practice among head and neck lesions is not up to par. Being cost effective, fast, simple, accurate and requires only a small tissue sample, its utilizing in oral diseases needs to be explored further

Clinicopathological Profile Of Significant Cervical Lymphadenopathy In Childern

Pramod Jog; Apurva Jonnalagadda; Sharad Agarkhedkar; Y Naga Akhil; Sindhuja Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1547-1559

Aim:  clinicopathological profile of significant cervical lymphadenopathy in children
Material and methods: This study was retrospective and descriptive. Data has been taken from the case files of all patients seen at the Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune(2021-2022). The age ranged from 1 month to 12 years.The Health Research and Ethics Committee of the Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent.
Results: 50 patients, 72% IP and 28% OP, presenting the symptoms associated with lymphadenopathy were included in this study out of which 62% were male and 38% were female. The median age of presentation was observed to be 6.9 years. Swelling in neck as one of the symptoms was present in majority of patients (90%). Fever (70%), cough (70%), loss of appetite (40%), and sore throat (36%) were the other major symptoms shown by the patients. More than one symptom was shown be 68% of the patients. Majority of cases had lymph node of size 1-2 cm (76%), firm consistency (84%) and mobile (66%). The mot common site of inflammation was anterior cervical (48%) followed by posterior cervical (34%). Tenderness of lymph node was absent in 79% of the cases. Associated findings included tonsillitis (24%), ear infection (16%), hepato/spleenomegaly (16), orodental infection (6%), skin lesion and rash (4% each). Blood counts evaluation showed neutrophilia in majority of cases (56%), followed by leucocytosis (52%), anaemia (32%), lymphocytosis (24%) and eosinophilia (8%). ESR was normal in 64% of the cases.  Throat culture resulted in 50% of cases showing normal commensals while as streptococcus and staphylococcus was found in 33% and 16% of cases respectively. Cytological examination revealed reactive lymphadenitis in 46% cases, tubercular lymphadenitis in 32% cases and Suppurative lymphadenitis in 12% cases. However, 4% cases yielded inadequate aspirate. Mantoux test was negative in 66% of the cases. A total of 23 patients were sent for X-ray, out of which 12 (24%) showed normal X-ray findings.
Conclusion: The above results present the repertoire of evaluations with respect to the detection of lymphadenopathy in children. This study also emphasises the importance of considering various strategies in proper and early detection to ensure timely management of lymphadenopathy.

Oral Exfoliative Cytology-A New Era In Diagnostic Oral Pathology

Dr Supratim Ghosh,Dr Akshay Dhobley .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9935-9940

Cytology is the branch of science which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry.Oral cytology is becoming increasingly important in the early diagnosis of oral cancers, as a procedure for obtaining cell samples that can then be analyzed by sophisticated diagnostic techniques such as cytomorphometry, DNA cytometry, and molecular analyses. The cytological study of oral cavity cells is simple and rapid, non-aggressive and relatively painless: it is thus well accepted by patients and suitable for routine application in population screening programmes, for early analysis of suspect lesions, and for pre-and post-treatment monitoring of confirmed malignant lesions. Herein, we have briefly discussed the role oral cytology as in diagnostic oral pathology.


Anil Kumar Sethiya, Madan Kumar Solanki, Hanuman Ram Choudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1696-1705

Background: The proper evaluation of ascitic fluid helps in narrowing the diagnostic dilemma faced by the physicians and helps in better management of the patients. Early and accurate diagnosis often depends on appropriate ascitic fluid analysis. The aim of this study to correlate the cytological features of the ascitic fluid with clinical data at newly established tertiary care center.
Materials & Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, in a tertiary health care centre over a period of one year. Cytological examination was performed to reveal important information regarding the causes of ascites and classified as benign (with or without infection/ spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), suspicious or malignant conditions. Cytomorphology of the cells was studied and documented paying attention to cellular arrangement, cytoplasmic features and nuclear characteristics. Clinical information of the patient and cytomorphological features of the smears were studied and the samples were categorized into benign (with or without infection/ SBP), suspicious of malignancy or malignant.
Results: Our study showed that the mean age was 55.67 years. Out of 30 cases, 14 were males and 16 were females, with male to female ratio being 7:8. Out of 30 samples, 26 (86.66%) were benign, 2 (6.66%) were suspicious of malignancy, and 2 (6.66%) were positive for malignancy. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was Alcoholic Liver disease comprising of 8 (26.66%) cases. The predominant cell type was Lymphocyte in 14 (46.66%) of cases, Neutrophil in 9 (30%) of cases, Reactive mesothelial cell in 5 (16.66%) of cases and atypical/malignant cells in 2 (6.66%) of cases. Histiocytic cells were also seen.
Conclusion: We concluded that non neoplastic and neoplastic conditions causing ascites can be diagnosed on ascitic fluid cytology. Increased neutrophil count is strongly suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The careful cytomorphological examination of ascitic fluid is a valuable, simple, rapid, inexpensive and reliable technique in the differential diagnosis of ascites, particularly in resource limited settings.

Role of Tzanck Smear microscopy for detection of vesiculobullous skin lesions and active genital herpes- a pilot study in tertiary care hospital, Patna, Bihar

1Randhir Kumar, 2Kranti C Jaykar, 3Nidhi Prasad, 4Shailesh Kumar, 5Rakesh Kumar, 6Namrata Kumari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3326-3331

Background: Cytology is a diagnostic technique used to evaluate the properties of individual cells. Tzanck smear is a quick, simple, sensitive cytology procedure that can be done with little patient discomfort and expense.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the value of Tzanck smear in evaluating vesiculobullous illnesses and active genital herpes in relation to clinical diagnosis.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the value of Tzanck smear in evaluating various vesiculobullous skin lesions in comparison to clinical diagnosis. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test was applied.
Results: The majority of the 70 patients evaluated had viral infections or auto immune vesiculobullous diseases. On cytology, all patients with viral infection had multinucleated giant cells, and all patients with pemphigus had a large number of acantholytic cells as well as an inflammatory infiltrate. All of the patients with bullous pemphigoid had a significant number of eosinophils. The presence of acantholytic cells, multinucleate large cells, and eosinophils had a highly significant connection with clinical diagnosis.
Conclusion: Tzanck smear, while not a replacement for traditional histology, can aid in establishing the clinical diagnosis with ease and speed.


Dr. Harsh Jakhetia, Dr. Smriti Pandey, Dr. Kamlesh Patel, Dr. Dhruvendra Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1019-1026

Background: For the evaluation and assessment of both non-gynaecologic and gynaecologic
specimens, extensive use of LBC (Liquid-based cytology) has gained popularity in the recent
past. Better assessment morphologically is possible owing to the monolayer cell suspension.
Also, LBC allows assessment of nucleolar prominence, smaller cell size, fragmented cell
clusters, lost, reduced, or altered background material.
Aim: The present study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the utility and efficacy of
Liquid-Based Cytology over conventional smears for assessment of the breast lesion, and to
assess their use as an alternative to the conventional preparation.
Materials and Methods: The present prospective clinical study included 374 female subjects
of the FNAC (fine-needle aspiration cytology) obtained from subjects having palpable breast
lesions. The second pass was given, whereas, the first pass was used for either LBC or
conventional smear. Several criteria were used to compare representative LBC and
conventional smear. Individual scoring of each criterion was done followed by statistical
Results: The study results showed that statistically non-significant difference was seen
between LBS and conventional concerning nuclear and cytoplasmic details, presence of
monolayer,cytoarchitectural pattern, and cellularity, whereas, a statistically significant
difference was seen for background blood-debris and informative background.


B. Sabarinath; Preethi Sundaraman; B. Sivapathasundharam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1015-1019
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.102

Background: Tissues are fixed and preserved and protected from putrefaction and autolysis before routine histopathological or cytological examination. Ethanol is commonly used as a cytological fixative due to its better preservation of nuclear details. Honey, a natural product which possess antibacterial; acidic; dehydrative properties which classify it as fixative than a preservative. Aim:The aim of this study is to compare ethanol with honey as a cytological fixative. Materials and Methods: Smear samples of buccal mucosa from patients submitted to the Outpatient Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study group. The study consisted of two groups. Group I that used alcohol as the fixative comprising of 30 smear samples and Group II that used 10% honey to fix 30 smear samples.A double-blind study was conducted. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test was the statistical method applied for the study using SPSS software (Version 17). Result: The results are discussed. Conclusion: Honey can be used asan alternate fixative to alcohol in cytopathology.