Author : Ambika Nair, Achini Dharmsena , Wijertne BSD , Jalpa Gandhi ,
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1463-1478
Background: The share of ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, ovoglobulins, ovomucin, and lysozymes are the main components of albumen protein. 12.5% (w/w) protein can be found in fresh egg whites. The principal proteins in egg white are albumen (water-soluble) and globular proteins (soluble in neutral dilute salt solutions). Biotin, niacin, and riboflavin are water-soluble vitamins that are present in substantial amounts in egg albumen. The major protein present in egg albumen is known as "Ovalbumin" and it is the only protein of egg albumen that contains free SH groups. Albumin is a natural plasma protein synthesized exclusively by the liver at a rate of 9 to 14 g/day in healthy individuals, with a median half-life of about 18 to 19 days. Albumin is catabolized in most organs of the body at a similar rate of about 9 to 14 g/day, by uptake into endocytotic vesicles on the endothelial surface; the final breakdown products are amino acids. Whatever the underlying mechanisms, hypoalbuminemia is associated with worse outcomes including increased complicationsand reduced short-term and longer-term survival in critically ill patients. Conclusion: Egg albumin has multiple physiological effects, including regulation of colloid osmotic pressure (COP), binding and transportation of various substances (for example, drugs, hormones) within the blood, antioxidant properties, nitric oxide modulation, and buffer capabilities, which may be of particular relevance in critically ill patients. It possesses antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-cancerous properties. It can be used in critically ill patients with involvement of the liver, renal diseases, peripheral edema, cirrhosis, bacterial peritonitis, ascites, etc.