Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : B, Chandrakala

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Genioglossus

Govindarajan Sumathy; Bhaskaran Sathyapriya; Chandrakala B; Parijat Sinha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1675-1680

The human upper airway is important in many voluntary and involuntary tasks such as swallowing, speech and breathing. The nasal, pharyngeal and laryngeal region forms upper airway. It is a complicated structure that plays a key role in breathing, vocalization and swallowing. The upper airway is a highly flexible structure that lack rigid bony support. It is vulnerable by pressures that are generated during inspiration and by the surrounding soft tissues. The focus in this article was on the genioglossus muscle and its role in maintaining upper airway.

Arachnoid Cyst

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya; Chandrakala B; Govindarajan Sumathy; Anirudh R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1658-1661

With the greater worldwide availability of neuroimaging, more arachnoid cysts are being found in all age groups. A subset of these lesions become symptomatic and requires neurosurgical management. The clinical presentations of arachnoid cyst vary from asymptomatic to extremely symptomatic.[1]
Arachnoid cysts are non-neoplastic, intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled spaces lined with arachnoid membranes. Large arachnoid cysts are often symptomatic because they compress surrounding structures; therefore, they must be treated surgically. As several surgical management options exist, we explore the best approach according to each major type of arachnoid cyst: middle cranial fossa cyst, suprasellar cyst, intrahemispheric cyst, and quadrigeminal cyst. [2]
Arachnoid cysts are benign space-occupying brain lesions that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Most cases are congenital in origin, caused by failed fusion of the arachnoid membrane early in fetal development. Cases are often incidentally detected on neuroimaging; however, rarely patients present with neuropsychiatric manifestations when cysts expand and cause a midline shift, compression of nearby brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid compartments or both. [3]

Iridology- A Review

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya; Chandrakala B; Govindarajan Sumathy; P.S. Sneha; Lydia Jaya Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1668-1674

Iridology is defined as a photographic science that identifies pathological and functional changes within organs via biomicroscopic iris assessment for aberrant lines, spots, and discolourations. According to iridology, the iris does not reflect changes during anaesthesia, due to the drugs inhibitory effects on nerves impulses, and in cases of organ removal, it reflects the pre-surgical condition. The profession of Homoeopathy is frequently associated with iridology and in a recent survey (2009) investigating the perceptions of Masters of Technology graduates in Homoeopathy of University of Johannesburg, iridology was highly regarded as a potential additional skill requirement for assessing the health status of the patient. It is also known as iridodiagnosis or iridiagnosisis an alternative medicinetechnique whose proponents claim that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iriscan be examined to determine information about a patient's systemichealth. It is an analysis of health based on examination of the iris of the eye. Practitioners match their observations to iris charts, which divide the iris into zones that correspond to specific parts of the human body. Iridologists see the eyes as "windows" into the body's state of health.Iridologists claim they can use the charts to distinguish between healthy systems and organs in the body and those that are overactive, inflamed, or distressed. Iridologists claim this information demonstrates a patient's susceptibility towards certain illnesses, reflects past medical problems, or predicts later health problems.


Chandrakala B; Govindarajan Sumathy; Bhaskaran Sathyapriya; Pavishwarya P; Sweta Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1662-1667

Sella turcica is a saddle shaped bony structure present on the sphenoid bone. The pituitary gland is seated at the inferior aspect of the sella turcica, called hypophyseal fossa. Sella turcica serves as a cephalometric landmark, that being said any morphological changes can affect the overall craniometry of the individual as well as alter the function of the structures it lodges. The following review emphasis on the possible morphological changes of sella turcica and its effects on the individual.

A Review on Tay-Sachs Disease

Govindarajan Sumathy; Bhaskaran Sathyapriya; Chandrakala B; Muhammadh Munthasir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1681-1685

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal genetic disorder that causes progressive destruction of the nervous system. It also affects the mental and physical abilities of that being around six month of age. TSD most commonly occurs in children that causes the slow destruction of the central nervous system.. It occurs when more quantities of cell membrane components called gangliosides, accumulate in the brain’s nerve cells. This occurs due to the absence of an important enzyme called Hexosaminidase-A (HEX-A).